Human Relations Chapter 4

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Human Relations Chapter 4

  1. 1. Looking Out/Looking InLooking Out/Looking In Thirteenth EditionThirteenth Edition 44EmotionsEmotions CHAPTER TOPICSCHAPTER TOPICS • What are Emotions? • Influences on Emotional Expression • Guidelines for Expressing Emotions • Managing Difficult Emotions
  2. 2. 22EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING What Are Emotions?What Are Emotions? • Physiological Factors • Strong emotions are coupled with strong physiological factors • Physical components of fear: • Increased heart rate • Rise in blood pressure • Increase in adrenaline secretions • Elevated blood sugar • A slowing of the digestive system
  3. 3. 33EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING What are Emotions?What are Emotions? • Nonverbal Reactions • Feelings are often apparent by observable reactions • Appearance Changes • Blushing, sweating, etc • Behavioral Changes • Facial expression • Posture • Gestures • Different vocal tone or rate
  4. 4. 44EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING What are Emotions?What are Emotions? • Cognitive Interpretations • The mind plays an important role in determining emotional states • The symptoms of fear discussed earlier are similar to those of excitement, joy and other emotions • If you were to monitor someone having a strong emotional reaction, you would have a hard time ascertaining which emotion the person was experiencing
  5. 5. 55EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING What are Emotions?What are Emotions? • Verbal Expression • Words can be required to discover the depth or intensity of the emotion • At times we can’t rely on perceptiveness to be sure a message is communicated • Is a new acquaintance mistaking your friendlessness as a come-on? • Is a lover’s unenthusiastic response a sign of boredom with you, or something less personal?
  6. 6. 66EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Influences on EmotionalInfluences on Emotional ExpressionExpression • Personality • There is a clear relationship between personality and the way we experience and express emotions • Extroverts tend to report more positive emotions • Neurotic individuals tend to report more negative emotions • Personality doesn’t have to govern your communication satisfaction
  7. 7. 77EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Influences on EmotionalInfluences on Emotional ExpressionExpression • Culture • A significant factor that influences emotional expression in different cultures is whether that culture is: • Individualistic (United States and Canada) • These cultures feel comfortable revealing their emotions to people with whom they are close • Collectivistic (Japan and India) • These cultures prize harmony and discourage expressions of negative emotions which may upset relationships
  8. 8. 88EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Influences on EmotionalInfluences on Emotional ExpressionExpression • Gender • Biological sex is the best predictor of the ability to detect/interpret emotional expression • Research suggests that there is some truth to the unexpressive male • In one study, females were 10-15% more accurate in remembering emotional images • People in close relationships are likely to experience/express more emotions than those who are not
  9. 9. 99EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Influences on EmotionalInfluences on Emotional ExpressionExpression • Social Conventions • The unwritten rules of communication discourage the direct expression of emotion • How many genuine emotional expressions do you or we see in daily life? • Social rules even discourage too much expression of positive feelings • Emotion Labor • Managing or even suppressing emotions is both appropriate and necessary
  10. 10. 1010EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Influences on EmotionalInfluences on Emotional ExpressionExpression • Fear of Self-Disclosure • In a society that discourages the expression of emotions, revealing them can seem risky • Emotional Contagion • The process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another • Is it possible to catch someone’s mood? • Emotions become more infectious with prolonged contact
  11. 11. 1111EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Guidelines for ExpressingGuidelines for Expressing EmotionEmotion • There is not a universal rule for expression of emotion • Personality, culture, gender, play a part • The key is to express emotion constructively • Think about a time when you expressed your emotion clearly, then wish you hadn’t. • Those who control their feelings and deny distress are more likely to get a host of ailments, including cancer and heart disease
  12. 12. 1212EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Guidelines for ExpressingGuidelines for Expressing EmotionEmotion • Recognize Your Feelings • Beyond being aware, also try to identify • Recognize the difference between feeling, talking and acting • Expand your emotional vocabulary • Share multiple feelings • You might often express anger but overlook confusion, disappointment or frustration
  13. 13. 1313EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Guidelines for ExpressingGuidelines for Expressing EmotionEmotion • Consider When and Where to Express Your Feelings • Give yourself time to discover the gravity of the emotion before full expression • Accept responsibility for your feelings • Instead of saying: • “You’re making me angry!” try “I’m getting angry.” • “You hurt my feelings,” say “I feel hurt when you do that.”
  14. 14. 1414EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Guidelines for ExpressingGuidelines for Expressing EmotionEmotion • Be Mindful of the Communication Channel • Mediated Channels • Email • Instant Message • SMS Message • Is it appropriate to end a relationship via voicemail? • What is the result of using CAPITAL LETTERS in an instant message or email?
  15. 15. 1515EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Facilitative and Debilitative Emotions • Facilitative Emotions • Are emotions which contribute to effective functioning • Debilitative Emotions • Are emotions which detract from effective functioning • Intensity • Anger or irritation may be beneficial • Rage usually makes matters worse
  16. 16. 1616EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Sources of Debilitative Emotions • Our genetic makeup • Emotional memory • Harmless events can trigger debilitative feelings • Self-talk
  17. 17. 1717EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Self-Talk • Interpretations people make of an event, during the process of self-talk that determine their feelings Event Thought Feeling Being called names “I’ve done something wrong.” hurt, upset Being called names “My friend must be sick.” concern, sympathy
  18. 18. 1818EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Irrational Thinking • The Fallacies • The Fallacy of Perfection • The belief that a worthwhile communication should be able to handle every situation • The Fallacy of Approval • That it is vital to gain the approval of virtually every person
  19. 19. 1919EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Irrational Thinking • The Fallacy of Shoulds • The inability to distinguish between what is and what should be • The Fallacy of Overgeneralization • Basing a decision on limited information • When we exaggerate shortcomings • The Fallacy of Causation • The irrational belief that emotions are caused by others rather than by one’s own self-talk
  20. 20. 2020EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Irrational Thinking • The Fallacy of Helplessness • Satisfaction in life is determined by forces beyond your control • The Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations • The assumption that if something bad can happen, then it is going to happen
  21. 21. 2121EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Managing Difficult EmotionsManaging Difficult Emotions • Minimizing Debilitative Emotions • Monitor your emotional reactions • Note the activating event • Record your self-talk • Reappraise your irrational beliefs • Replace self-defeating self-talk with more constructive thinking
  22. 22. 2222EMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATINGEMOTIONS: FEELING, THINKING, AND COMMUNICATING Chapter ReviewChapter Review • What are Emotions? • Influences on Emotional Expression • Guidelines for Expressing Emotions • Managing Difficult Emotions

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