Looking Out/Looking InLooking Out/Looking In
Thirteenth EditionThirteenth Edition
22Communication, Identity,Communication,...
22COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF...
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Hs chapt 2

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Hs chapt 2

  1. 1. Looking Out/Looking InLooking Out/Looking In Thirteenth EditionThirteenth Edition 22Communication, Identity,Communication, Identity, and the Selfand the Self CHAPTER TOPICSCHAPTER TOPICS • Communication and the Self • Presenting the Self: Communication as Identity Manageme
  2. 2. 22COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Self-Concept and Self-Esteem • Self-concept • The relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself • Ask yourself, “Who am I ?” • Describes who you think you are • Self-esteem • Evaluations of self-worth • High self-esteem does not guarantee success
  3. 3. 33COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Self-Concept and Self-Esteem • People with high self-esteem • Likely to think well of others • Expect to be accepted by others • Evaluate their own performance more favorably • Perform well when being watched • Inclined to feel comfortable with views of others • Able to defend themselves against negative comments
  4. 4. 44COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Self-Concept and Self-Esteem • People with low self-esteem • Likely to disapprove of others • Expect to be rejected by others • Evaluate their own performance less favorably • Perform poorly when being watched • Feel threatened by people they view as superior • Have difficulty defending themselves against others’ negative comments
  5. 5. 55COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Self-Concept and Self-Esteem • Self-esteem and communication behavior Figure 2.1 Page 43
  6. 6. 66COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Biological and Social Roots to the Self • Biology and the self • Personality is part of our genetic makeup • People who were judged shy as children still show a reaction as adults when they encounter new situations • Biology influenced traits • Extroversion • Shyness • Assertiveness • Verbal Aggression • Willingness to communicate
  7. 7. 77COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Socialization and the Self-Concept • Reflected Appraisal • Each of us develops a self-concept that reflects the way we believe others see us • Children are not born with a sense of identity • Children are bombarded with messages • “You’re so cute!” “I love you.” “What a big girl.” • “What’s the matter with you?” “You’re a bad boy.” • Evaluations like the those above are the mirror by which we know ourselves
  8. 8. 88COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Socialization and the Self-Concept • Social Comparison • Evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare with others • Two Types of Comparison • Superior or Inferior • Attractive or Ugly • Success or Failure • These comparisons depend on the person we measure ourselves against
  9. 9. 99COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Socialization and the Self-Concept • Social Comparison and The Media • Young women who measure themselves against ultra thin models develop negative appraisals • Men who compare themselves to the media- idealized male form develop negative appraisals • TV makeover shows can lead viewers to feel worse about themselves
  10. 10. 1010COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Characteristics of the Self-Concept • The self-concept is subjective • Distorted self-evaluations can occur • These distortions can be based on: • Obsolete information • Distorted feedback • Emphasis on perfection
  11. 11. 1111COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • The Self-Concept Resists Change • Cognitive Conservatism • We seek out people who support our self-concept • Are you funny? Or, do you surround yourself with people who tell you that you’re funny? • An inaccurate self-concept can lead to: • Self-delusion • Lack of growth • Most communicators are reluctant to downgrade a favorable impression of themselves
  12. 12. 1212COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Culture, Gender, and Identity • Culture • Individualistic Culture • Self is separate, unique individual • Should be independent, self-sufficient • Collectivistic Culture • People belong to extended families or in-groups • “We” or group orientation
  13. 13. 1313COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Culture, Gender, and Identity • Sex and gender • Your gender shapes the way people communicate with you • Shaping children with language • Boys – focus on size, strength and activity • “What a big boy!” “Look at how strong.” • Girls – focus on beauty and sweetness • “She looks beautiful.” “You’re so sweet.”
  14. 14. 1414COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy • Self-fulfilling prophecy • A person’s expectations and subsequent behavior make an event more likely to occur • Four stages of the self-fulfilling prophecy: • Holding an expectation (for yourself or others) • Behaving in accordance with that expectation • The expectation comes to pass • Reinforcing the original expectation
  15. 15. 1515COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy • Types of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies • Self-imposed prophecies • When your own expectations influence your behavior • Prophecies imposed by others • Expectations and behaviors of one, govern another’s actions • Pygmalion in the Classroom • Teacher’s impact on students • The selected students did better
  16. 16. 1616COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication and the SelfCommunication and the Self • Changing Your Self-Concept • Have a realistic perception of yourself • Have realistic expectations • Have the will to change • Have the skill to change • Seek Advice • Observe Models
  17. 17. 1717COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication as IdentityCommunication as Identity ManagementManagement • Public and Private Selves • Perceived Self (Private) • A reflection of the self concept • Presenting Self (Public) • The way we want others to view us
  18. 18. 1818COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication as IdentityCommunication as Identity ManagementManagement • Constructing Multiple Identities • Common Identities • Respectful Student • Joking Friend • Friendly Neighbor • Helpful Worker • Constructing multiple identities is an element of communication competence
  19. 19. 1919COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication as IdentityCommunication as Identity ManagementManagement • Identity Management: • Is collaborative • Can be deliberate or unconscious • Varies by situation • Differs in degree based on the individual
  20. 20. 2020COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication as IdentityCommunication as Identity ManagementManagement • Why Manage Identities • We manage our identities to: • Start and manage relationships • Gain compliance of others • Save the face of others • We often modify the way we present ourselves to support the way others want to be seen • Explore new selves
  21. 21. 2121COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication as IdentityCommunication as Identity ManagementManagement • Why Manage Identities • Face-to-face impression management • Managed in three ways • Manner • Consists of a communicator’s words and nonverbal actions • Setting • Physical items that we use to influence how others view us • Appearance • Personal items used to shape an image
  22. 22. 2222COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Communication as IdentityCommunication as Identity ManagementManagement • Identity Management and Honesty • Managing impressions doesn’t make you a liar • Each of us has a repertoire of faces • Which face we choose to show to others is an important decision
  23. 23. 2323COMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELFCOMMUNICATION AND IDENTITY: CREATING AND PRESENTING THE SELF Chapter ReviewChapter Review • Communication and the Self • Self-Concept and Self-Esteem • Biology, Culture, Gender, Identity • Self-fulfilling Prophecy • Presenting the Self: Communication as Identity Management • Public and Private Selves • How and Why we Manage Identities

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