Using YouTube videos of anthropology of tourism pioneer Valene Smith to balance the tourism curriculum


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In light of the Venn diagram of sustainability, a meta-analysis of four popular undergraduate tourism textbooks revealed a content imbalance tipped in favor of economics, the business of tourism. In order to infuse the curriculum with more socio-cultural content, and due to their immediate accessibility, recently posted YouTube videos highlighting the four-decade long work of Valene Smith were added to the content of two undergraduate classes. The use of social media to address the imbalance was a well-received method and could be easily adopted.

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  • A recession in the early 1980s places pressure on many companies to increase productivity by using emerging information technologies to drive cost savings. Some skeptics thought throwing pouring money in the black hole of IT was foolish, but some early adopters of IT thought it could drive growth and provide a decisive advantage. One of those early adopters in the tourism industry was American Airlines, who captured more than 40% of all US airline transactions to the creation and implementation of its innovative Sabre reservation systems.
  • If this recommendation were to be adopted by Smith, any updated or revised content could be immediately incorporated into future classroom instruction
  • Using YouTube videos of anthropology of tourism pioneer Valene Smith to balance the tourism curriculum

    1. 1. Using YouTube videos of anthropology of tourism pioneer Valene Smith to balance the tourism curriculum By Linda Joyce Forristal, PhD Drexel University
    2. 2. Megatrends <ul><li>In the last 100 years, the world has seen several megatrends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT and information society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Airlines and Sabre </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Sustainability is everywhere <ul><li>As we move into the second decade of the third millennium, faculties and universities are being asked to institute sustainability programs and curricula across campuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it behooves the various branches academia to step back and take a long-armed view of their own curriculums. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Venn diagram of sustainability <ul><li>Mirroring sustainable development, sustainable tourism is often broken into three constituent parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics (profit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental (planet or the physical and natural environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone (people or socio-cultural) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Web 2.0 in the classroom <ul><li>Increasing evidence the Millennials, Generation Y, Trophy Kids, Digital Natives or the Net Generation respond well to Web 2.0 technology strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Net Gens are techno-savvy, visually-oriented learners that prefer interactive media (Berk, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube has been successfully used across the disciplines (Snelson, 2011) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Tourism textbook meta-analysis <ul><li>A meta-analysis of the table of contents (TOCs) of four recent undergraduate tourism textbooks was undertaken. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Textbook chapter distribution
    8. 8. Socio-cultural lacunae <ul><li>Research reveals the need to add both environmental and socio-cultural content to introductory tourism textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>First step should be to attend to the socio-cultural lacunae due to the people-oriented host/guest nature of tourism and hospitality because positive human relationships lie at the heart of tourism (MacCannell, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>There is need for the social side of tourism to be better presented </li></ul>
    9. 9. Valene Smith <ul><li>Scholars have tried to make “sociological sense” of the tourism for decades (Urry, 1990:7). </li></ul><ul><li>One of the earliest scholars looking at the socio-cultural and anthropological underpinnings of tourism was Valene Smith </li></ul>
    10. 10. Four-decade career <ul><li>Smith’s work is seldom mentioned in tourism-focused textbooks, either at the undergraduate or graduate level, despite the fact that she is a founding member and fellow of the prestigious, invitation-only International Academy for the Study of Tourism. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>In one of the tributes to Smith gathered by anthropologist Margaret Swain Byrne, tourism scholar John Tribe described Smith as the “wise chief of our academic tribe and pioneer of our academic territories” (Bryne, 2011). </li></ul>
    12. 12. Smith’s 4Hs <ul><li>Smith’s 4Hs of Tourism, can be used to “pinpoint host assets and liabilities in the market mix for initial tourism development” (Smith, 2001:112). </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Handicraft </li></ul>
    13. 13. Textbooks omissions <ul><li>Two of the four textbooks briefly touch on the foundational role of anthropology to tourism studies. However, coverage is minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Goeldner and Ritchie (2009:268) mentioned Smith’s “six categories of tourism,” but neither specifically her 4Hs nor her place as a tourism pioneer . </li></ul><ul><li>Page mentions Smith as the author of influential studies, but none of the content of her studies is presented, nor the 4Hs or her pioneering status. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Turning to Web 2.0 <ul><li>Take years to conceive, write and publish a new textbook or a newer edition of an existing textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, turning to Web 2.0 technology, specifically YouTube, was hypothesized to be an effective and efficient way to address, at least in part, the perceived curricular imbalance supported by the meta-analysis. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Valene Smith YouTube videos
    16. 16. Early beginnings of tourism
    17. 17. Classroom debut <ul><li>In Fall 2010, six of the nine YouTube videos of Smith’s work and philosophy were shown in two introductory tourism courses. </li></ul><ul><li>The videos not only provided an infusion of engaging multi-media content into the course, but also served to balance the introductory tourism material being presented. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Successful implementation <ul><li>Videos invoked lively classrooms discussions, including a discussion of how “handicrafts” might also be viewed as a kind of “heritage.” </li></ul><ul><li>An assessment on the final exam presented students with a tourism scenario to discuss using Smith’s 4Hs as a framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Seventy-nine percent of the students received the maximum 25 possible points. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Effective Net Gen tool <ul><li>YouTube videos were an effective pedagogical tool for Net Gens. </li></ul><ul><li>The incorporation of YouTube videos engaged techno-savvy and visually-oriented students. </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube videos were a free and immediate way to both balance the curriculum and up-to-date it. </li></ul><ul><li>Content also accessible to students outside the classroom. </li></ul>
    20. 20. A 5 th H? <ul><li>At the Chico conference, Margaret Byrne Swain, a longtime friend and colleague, asked Smith “to consider a 5 th “H”—that of “Hospitality” in the cosmopolitan sense of ‘kindness to strangers, as well as welcoming within cultural groups, and the many gendered, classed, aged, etc. rules of behavior that are kept for social order, and broken for commoditization, as in sex tourism (Bryne, 2011).” </li></ul><ul><li>Thought ‘Heritage’ could cover ‘Handicrafts’ </li></ul>
    21. 21. Refinement of Smith’s 4Hs <ul><li>Habitat, History, Heritage (now including Handicrafts) and Hospitality. </li></ul><ul><li>4Hs remain intact (i.e., not increased to five), and is more clearly inclusive of tourism hospitality concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>A new “Hospitality H” could also be used to incorporate some of the economic aspects of tourism, which would serve to give more balance within Smith’s approach. </li></ul><ul><li>If recommendation adopted by Smith, any revisions could be immediately incorporated into future instruction. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Key references <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Berk, R. A. (2009). Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube, and mtvU in the college classroom. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 5 (1) , 1–21. </li></ul><ul><li>Berk, R. A. (2010). How do you leverage the latest technologies, including Web 2.0 tools, in your classroom? International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 6 (1) , 1-13 </li></ul><ul><li>Byrne, M. S. (March 4, 2011). Indexing Valene Smith’s many contributions to the anthropology of tourism and international tourism studies. Keynote speech presented at Reflections and New Directions: A Conference on the Anthropology of Tourism in Honor of Valene L. Smith, Chico State University, Chico, CA. </li></ul><ul><li>Liburd, J., Hjalager, A-M., & Christensen, I-M. (2011). Valuing Tourism Education 2.0. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11 (1), 107-130. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, V. L. (1977). Hosts and guests: the anthropology of tourism . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. </li></ul><ul><li>  Smith, V. L., & Brent, M. (2001). Hosts and guests revisited: tourism issues of the 21st century . New York: Cognizant Communication Corp. </li></ul>