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A basic introduction to clauses and different types of sentences.

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  1. 1. The Sentence<br />Mr O’Meara<br />
  2. 2. What is a sentence?<br />Working in pairs, write a working definition of a sentence.<br />Now let’s look at what a serious dictionary has to say.<br />
  3. 3. Dictionary Defintion<br />A linguistic form (a word or a sequence of words arranged in a grammatical construction) which is not part of a larger construction, typically expressing an independent statement, inquiry or command.(Macquarie Dictionary, Third Edition)<br />
  4. 4. Defintion<br />Let’s try for something simpler.<br />A piece of language expressing a complete statement, inquiry or command.<br />
  5. 5. Which of these is a sentence?<br />The dog ran.<br />The dog.<br />Ran down the road.<br />Last week, the dog.<br />Sit!<br />What is the time?<br />Mr Jones’ red fire engine.<br />Anyone who has a heart.<br />The answer, my friend.<br />I hope you had the time of your life.<br />
  6. 6. Subject + Predicate<br />Subject: What we are talking about.<br />Predicate: the action associated with the subject. <br />This phrase contains the verb and other information.<br />
  7. 7. So which are sentences?<br />The dog ran.<br />subject + predicate = sentence<br />The dog.<br />Subject only = fragment<br />Ran down the road.<br />Predicate only = fragment.<br />Last week, the dog.<br />Subject only = fragment<br />Sit!<br />Implied subject + predicate = sentence<br />
  8. 8. So which are sentences?<br />What is the time?<br />Subject + predicate = sentence<br />Mr Jones’ red fire engine.<br />Subject only = fragment<br />Anyone who has a heart.<br />Subject only = fragment<br />The answer, my friend.<br />Two possible subject = fragment.<br />I hope you had the time of your life.<br />Subject + predicate = sentence.<br />
  9. 9. Fragments<br />Sometimes you will use fragments in your writing.<br />But they are not full sentences.<br />Use them with care.<br />
  10. 10. A fragment for emphasis<br />eg. I walked into the room and the dog was on the bed. The dog. The bed.<br />
  11. 11. A fragment for partial thoughts<br />“I decided to go to the shop for...” he said, “I can’t remember what for.”<br />
  12. 12. Four kinds of sentences<br />Simple sentences<br />Compound sentences<br />Complex sentences<br />Compound-complex sentences<br />But first we need to understand about clauses.<br />
  13. 13. Clauses<br />The building blocks of sentences.<br />Independent clause<br />Can stand alone as a complete sentence.<br />The dog raced down the road.<br />The tennis balls were smashed across the court.<br />Dependant clause<br />Only part of a sentence; it cannot stand alone.<br />To follow the ball.<br />After colliding with the racquet. <br />
  14. 14. Simple Sentence<br />One independent clause.<br />Just one thought.<br />Indiana sat down on her bed.<br />Can contain multiples of subject or object.<br />Indiana and Emmylou slept on the floor and the couch.<br />
  15. 15. Your turn<br />Write two simple sentences.<br />
  16. 16. Compound Sentence<br />A sentence that has two or more independant clauses.<br />Usually joined by a conjunction.<br />eg. unless, because, but, rather than.<br />Conjunctions create a relationship.<br />This is an excellent way to demonstrate the connection between events and information.<br />
  17. 17. Compound Sentences<br />Basic: Indiana smells nice.<br />Basic: Indiana just had a bath.<br />Compound: Indiana smells nice because she just had a bath.<br />
  18. 18. Compound Sentences<br />Basic: Emmylou was frightened by the thunder.<br />Basic: Emmylou jumped into my lap.<br />Compound: Emmylou jumped into my lap because she was frightened by the thunder.<br />
  19. 19. Compound and the Semi-Colon<br />You can also make a compound sentence using a semi colon.<br />This is useful when you don’t want to, or don’t need to, explain the connection between the ideas.<br />eg. Emmylou jumped into my lap; she was frightened by the thunder.<br />
  20. 20. Conjunctions<br />Let’s take a quick detour and look at some conjunctions.<br />
  21. 21. Conjunctions<br />There are lots of words used as conjunctions but only a few simple types.<br />Conditional<br />Reason<br />Choice<br />Contrast<br />Location<br />Result<br />Time<br />
  22. 22. Conjunctions: Conditional<br />Shows a conditional link between clauses.<br />Unless<br />Provided that<br />If<br />Even if<br />Indiana will stay on the couch unless she hears the fridge door open.<br />
  23. 23. Conjunctions: Reason<br />One clause is the reason for the other.<br />Because<br />As<br />As If<br />Indiana sat on the floor because Emmylou was on the couch.<br />
  24. 24. Conjunctions: Choice<br />Demonstrates choices or options.<br />Rather than<br />Than<br />Whether<br />Or<br />Indiana likes to sleep inside rather than sit outside.<br />
  25. 25. Conjunctions: Contrast<br />Contrasts one clause with another.<br />Rather than<br />Than<br />Emmylou runs faster than Indiana.<br />
  26. 26. Conjunctions: Location<br />Shows location connection.<br />Where<br />Whereas<br />Last week it was raining in Williamstown where I was riding my Zen bike.<br />
  27. 27. Conjunctions: Result<br />One clause is a result of the other.<br />In order that<br />So<br />So that<br />That<br />I left out the book so that Emmylou could eat most of it.<br />
  28. 28. Conjunctions: Time<br />Show a time connection between the clauses.<br />While<br />Once<br />When<br />Since<br />Whenever<br />After<br />Before<br />Until<br />As Soon As.<br />
  29. 29. Conjunctions: Time<br />Notice how the meaning is slightly different each time.<br />Indiana barks while it is dark outside.<br />Indiana barks once it is dark outside.<br />Indiana barks when it is dark outside.<br />Indiana has been barking since it became dark outside.<br />Indiana barks whenever it is dark outside.<br />Indiana barks after it is dark outside.<br />Indiana barks before it is dark outside.<br />Indiana barks until it is dark outside.<br />Indiana barks as soon as it is dark outside.<br />
  30. 30. Your turn<br />Write your own compound sentence with:<br />a reason conjunction,<br />a result conjunction,<br />a conditional conjunction,<br />a semi-colon in place of a conjunction,<br />a contrast conjunction, and<br />a time conjunction.<br />
  31. 31. Time to get back to our sentences<br />
  32. 32. Complex Sentence<br />A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependant clause.<br />Although Indiana is not very bright, she is a wonderful pet.<br />Although Indiana is not very bright (dependant clause), she is a wonderful pet (independent clause).<br />
  33. 33. Complex Sentences<br />Identify the independent and dependent clauses in this complex sentences.<br />Since I was starving, I went out for a drink and a pizza.<br />After seeing the movie, I decided that I would not bother watching For Your Consideration again on DVD.<br />Although I was very tired, I could not sleep.<br />
  34. 34. Your turn<br />Write two complex sentences.<br />
  35. 35. Compound-Complex Sentence<br />A sentence that has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependant clause.<br />These are the most complicated sentences but perfectly simple really.<br />Identify the two independent clauses and the dependant clause in the following examples.<br />
  36. 36. Compound-Complex Sentence<br />Indiana went to the shops although Emmylou, being terribly tired, stayed home to snooze.<br />I wanted to stay in bed but I decided, after a brief mental struggle, to get up and go to work.<br />We could study sentences for ever, it is tempting, or play at little, by this I mean just one, game of silent ball.<br />
  37. 37. Quick Quiz<br />What type of sentence is each of these?<br />Because it was raining, I went inside.<br />I was playing video games and the rain stopped.<br />I looked outside, just to be sure, and saw that the rain had started again.<br />The rain fell down.<br />
  38. 38. Quick Quiz<br />The rain fell some more and I moved onto a new video game.<br />It was great but...<br />The roof fell in.<br />The power shorted out because of all the water, as you’d expect.<br />So I went back to bed.<br />
  39. 39. Time for some answers...<br />
  40. 40. Quick Quiz - Answers<br />Because it was raining, I went inside. <br />(complex)<br />I was playing video games and the rain stopped.<br />(compound)<br />I looked outside, just to be sure, and saw that the rain had started again. <br />(compound-complex)<br />The rain fell down.<br />(simple)<br />
  41. 41. Quick Quiz - Answers<br />The rain fell some more and I moved onto a new video game.<br />(compound)<br />It was great but...<br />(fragment)<br />The roof fell in.<br />(simple)<br />The power shorted out because of all the water, as you’d expect.<br />(compound-complex)<br />So I went back to bed. (fragment, dependant clause).<br />
  42. 42. Now it’s your turn<br />Write.<br />Four simple sentences.<br />Three compound sentences.<br />Two complex sentences.<br />One compound-complex sentence.<br />