Rhetorical Devices

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Some common and powerful techniques to make words stand out.

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Rhetorical Devices

  1. 1. Memorable and effective words
  2. 6. <ul><li>Writing records human speech </li></ul><ul><li>The better it sounds, the better it reads </li></ul>
  3. 7. <ul><li>There are techniques to make any writing more interesting and effective </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of these that we already know? </li></ul>
  4. 9. <ul><li>What use of language makes this song memorable and catchy? </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll listen to it again and look at the words as we go </li></ul>
  5. 10. <ul><li>Monday morning feels so bad </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody seems to nag me </li></ul><ul><li>Coming Tuesday, I feel better </li></ul><ul><li>Even my old man looks good </li></ul>
  6. 11. <ul><li>Wednesday just don't go </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday goes too slow </li></ul><ul><li>I've got Friday on my mind </li></ul>
  7. 12. <ul><li>Gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Be with my girl, she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>She looks fine tonight </li></ul><ul><li>She is out of sight to me </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Tonight....I spend my bread </li></ul><ul><li>Tonight...I lose my head </li></ul><ul><li>Tonight...I got to get tonight </li></ul><ul><li>Monday I have Friday on my mind </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Do the five-day grind once more </li></ul><ul><li>I know of nothing else that bugs me </li></ul><ul><li>More than working for the rich man </li></ul><ul><li>Hey, I'll change that scene one day </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>Today I might be mad </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow I'll be glad </li></ul><ul><li>Cos I've have Friday on my mind </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>I’m gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Be with my girl she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>She looks fine tonight </li></ul><ul><li>She is out of sight to me </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Tonight....I spend my bread </li></ul><ul><li>Tonight...I lose my head </li></ul><ul><li>Tonight...I got to get tonight </li></ul><ul><li>Monday I have Friday on my mind </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll be with my girl she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>I’m gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll be with my girl she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>Gonna have fun in the city </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>What is there in this song? </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>When we repeat words and phrases, they are more memorable. </li></ul><ul><li>What is repeated in this song? </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>“ Gonna have fun in the city... </li></ul><ul><li>... Monday I have Friday on my mind” </li></ul><ul><li>The whole chorus appears twice in this song. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>“ Gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll be with my girl she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>I’m gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll be with my girl she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>Gonna have fun in the city ” </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>The more you hear particular words, the more memorable they are. </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>Happy happy joy joy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy happy joy joy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy happy joy joy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy happy joy joy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy happy joy joy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy happy joy joy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy happy joy joy joy </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>This example is an extreme use of repetition, but it works </li></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>Gonna have fun in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Be with my girl, she's so pretty </li></ul><ul><li>She looks fine tonight </li></ul><ul><li>She is out of sight to me </li></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>Phrases or words end with the same sound. </li></ul><ul><li>NOT the same letters, the same sound. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rainbow” and “now” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Slow” and “go” </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>List the rhymes in Friday on My Mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Group them in rhyming groups </li></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>This works well in children’s book and pop songs. </li></ul><ul><li>Even then it can be overused and just sound silly. </li></ul><ul><li>Use it rarely in formal writing for adults. </li></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>Make up two and write down two rhymes of your own </li></ul>
  26. 33. Monday morning feels so bad Everybody seems to nag me
  27. 34. <ul><li>Repeated vowel sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Like rhyming, this is about sounds not spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, this old advertising slogan for a carpet cleaner: “it b ea ts and it sw ee ps as it cl ea ns” </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>Make a list of three assonant words. </li></ul><ul><li>Although rhyming words also assonate, make your choices assonant only. </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>Help, I need somebody, </li></ul><ul><li>Help, not just anybody, </li></ul><ul><li>Help, you know I need someone, help. </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>When I was younger, so much younger than today, </li></ul><ul><li>I never needed anybody's help in any way. </li></ul><ul><li>But now these days are gone, I'm not so self assured, </li></ul><ul><li>Now I find I've changed my mind and opened up the doors. </li></ul>
  31. 39. <ul><li>Help me if you can, I'm feeling down </li></ul><ul><li>And I do appreciate you being round. </li></ul><ul><li>Help me, get my feet back on the ground, </li></ul><ul><li>Won't you please, please help me? </li></ul>
  32. 40. <ul><li>And now my life has changed in oh so many ways, </li></ul><ul><li>My independence seems to vanish in the haze. </li></ul><ul><li>But every now and then I feel so insecure, </li></ul><ul><li>I know that I just need you like I've never done before. </li></ul>
  33. 41. <ul><li>Help me if you can, I'm feeling down </li></ul><ul><li>And I do appreciate you being round. </li></ul><ul><li>Help me, get my feet back on the ground, </li></ul><ul><li>Won't you please, please help me. </li></ul>
  34. 42. <ul><li>When I was younger, so much younger than today, </li></ul><ul><li>I never needed anybody's help in any way. </li></ul><ul><li>But now these days are gone, I'm not so self assured, </li></ul><ul><li>Now I find I've changed my mind and opened up the doors. </li></ul>
  35. 43. <ul><li>Help me if you can, I'm feeling down </li></ul><ul><li>And I do appreciate you being round. </li></ul><ul><li>Help me, get my feet back on the ground, </li></ul><ul><li>Won't you please, please help me, help me, help me, oh. </li></ul>
  36. 44. <ul><li>Help me if you can, I'm feeling down </li></ul><ul><li>And I do appreciate you being round. </li></ul><ul><li>Help me , get my feet back on the ground, </li></ul><ul><li>Won't you please, please help me? </li></ul>
  37. 45. <ul><li>Repetition of the same word or phrase at the start of successive clauses or lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: ah-NAF-oh-rah </li></ul>
  38. 46. <ul><li>“ There is freedom within, </li></ul><ul><li>there is freedom without </li></ul><ul><li>Try to catch the deluge in a paper cup.” (Crowded House, “Don’t Dream It’s Over) </li></ul>
  39. 47. <ul><li>I do not like them in a house. </li></ul><ul><li>I do not like them with a mouse. </li></ul><ul><li>I do not like them here or there. </li></ul><ul><li>I do not like them anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>I do not like green eggs and ham. </li></ul><ul><li>I do not like them, </li></ul><ul><li>Sam-I-am. </li></ul>
  40. 48. <ul><li>Create two examples of your own of anaphora </li></ul><ul><li>It’s doesn’t have to make a whole lot of sense; it just needs to start with the same words. </li></ul>
  41. 50. <ul><li>Two different things are compared </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes to add meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes to make it memorable </li></ul>
  42. 51. <ul><li>Look for comparing words, like and as . </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: SIM-i-lee </li></ul>
  43. 52. <ul><li>&quot;Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.&quot; (Carl Sandburg) </li></ul>
  44. 53. <ul><li>&quot;He looked about as inconspicuous as a tarantula on a slice of angel food.&quot; (Raymond Chandler) </li></ul><ul><li>How obvious was he? </li></ul>
  45. 54. <ul><li>Now that I've got my lovely fire, I'm as happy as a Frenchman who's just invented a pair of self-removing trousers . (Rowan Atkinson as Black Adder) </li></ul><ul><li>How happy is this? </li></ul>
  46. 55. <ul><li>1. Mr O’Meara’s classes are an exciting as... </li></ul><ul><li>2. The sky was like </li></ul><ul><li>3. He stood like a... </li></ul>
  47. 56. <ul><li>&quot;The streets were a furnace, the sun an executioner.&quot; (Cynthia Ozick, &quot;Rosa,&quot; 1983 ) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Men's words are bullets, that their enemies take up and make use of against them.&quot; (George Savile, Maxims of State , 1692) </li></ul>
  48. 57. <ul><li>Implied comparison is made between two unlike things that have something important in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: MET-ah-for </li></ul>
  49. 58. <ul><li>“ The moon was a ghostly galleon tossed upon cloudy seas” The Highwayman – Alfred Noyes </li></ul>
  50. 59. <ul><li>1. Mr O’Meara’s classes are... </li></ul><ul><li>2. The sky was... </li></ul><ul><li>3. He was a... </li></ul>
  51. 62. <ul><li>Juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in one sentence or phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: an-TITH-uh-sis </li></ul>
  52. 63. <ul><li>“ It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness...” Charles Dickens – The Tale of Two Cities </li></ul>
  53. 64. <ul><li>&quot;We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools.&quot; (Martin Luther King, Jr., speech at St. Louis, 1964) </li></ul>
  54. 65. <ul><li>It was the best day... </li></ul><ul><li>He was a foolish boy... </li></ul>
  55. 67. <ul><li>“ But I would walk 500 miles And I would walk 500 more Just to be the man who walked 1,000 miles To fall down at your door” (The Proclaimers – I’m Gonna Be (500 Miles)) </li></ul>
  56. 68. <ul><li>Exaggeration used for emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: hi-PURR-buh-lee </li></ul>
  57. 69. <ul><li>&quot;Ladies and gentlemen, I've been to Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, and I can say without hyperbole that this is a million times worse than all of them put together.&quot; (Kent Brockman, The Simpsons ) </li></ul>
  58. 70. <ul><li>I am so tired... </li></ul><ul><li>I was so hungry... </li></ul><ul><li>The class went for... </li></ul>
  59. 72. <ul><li>Consonant sounds at the beginning of words are repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: ah-lit-err-RAY-shun </li></ul>
  60. 73. <ul><li>&quot;You'll never put a better bit of butter on your knife.“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(advertising slogan for Country Life butter) </li></ul></ul>
  61. 74. <ul><li>&quot;The s oul s elects her own s ociety.&quot; (Emily Dickinson) </li></ul>
  62. 75. <ul><li>Write a sentence with alliteration. </li></ul><ul><li>Not every word have to start with the same consonant sound, just lots of them. </li></ul>
  63. 76. Pronunciation: an-tee-meh-TA-bo-lee
  64. 77. <ul><li>&quot;We didn't land on Plymouth Rock; Plymouth Rock landed on us.“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Malcolm X) </li></ul></ul>
  65. 78. <ul><li>The second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the words in reverse grammatical order (A-B-C, C-B-A). </li></ul>
  66. 79. <ul><li>&quot;I can write better than anybody who can write faster , and I can write faster than anybody who can write better .&quot; (A. J. Liebling) </li></ul>
  67. 80. <ul><li>&quot;You have to know how to accept rejection and reject acceptance .&quot; (Rad Bradbury) </li></ul>
  68. 81. <ul><li>Create just one of your own examples of antimetabole </li></ul>
  69. 83. <ul><li>&quot;Blue Moon, you saw me standing alone Without a dream in my heart Without a love of my own.&quot; (Lorenz Hart, &quot;Blue Moon&quot;) </li></ul>
  70. 84. <ul><li>A talking about something non-living as if it is a person that can understand you. </li></ul>
  71. 85. <ul><li>&quot;Hello darkness, my old friend I've come to talk with you again . . ..&quot; (Paul Simon, &quot;The Sounds of Silence&quot;) </li></ul>
  72. 86. <ul><li>&quot;It's just a flesh wound.&quot; (Black Knight, after having both of his arms cut off, in Monty Python and the Holy Grail ) </li></ul>
  73. 87. <ul><li>&quot;I am just going outside and may be some time.&quot; (Captain Lawrence Oates, Antarctic explorer, before walking out into a blizzard to face certain death, 1912) </li></ul>
  74. 88. <ul><li>Making a situation seem less important or serious than it is. </li></ul><ul><li>The intent is not to mislead, but to highlight. </li></ul>
  75. 89. <ul><li>&quot;Ladies and Gentlemen, this is your Captain speaking. We have a small problem. All four engines have stopped. We are doing our damnedest to get them going again. I trust you are not in too much distress.&quot; </li></ul>
  76. 90. <ul><li>&quot;When it pours, it reigns.&quot; (slogan of Michelin tires) </li></ul><ul><li>“ When it rains, it pours’” </li></ul>
  77. 91. <ul><li>A play on words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different senses of the same word, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different senses of similar sounding words </li></ul></ul>
  78. 93. <ul><li>A three-legged dog walks into a saloon in the Old West. He sidles up to the bar and announces: &quot;I'm looking for the man who shot my paw.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Shot my paw </li></ul><ul><li>Shot my pa </li></ul>
  79. 94. <ul><li>Two Eskimos sitting in a kayak were cold so they lit a fire in the craft. It sank, proving that you can't have your kayak and heat it, too. </li></ul><ul><li>“ You can’t have your cake and eat it, too.” </li></ul>
  80. 95. <ul><li>WARNING: Using puns rarely. </li></ul>
  81. 96. <ul><li>What techniques are being used here? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You’ve done a hundred things before half past nine.” (The Waifs, “Gillian”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is the winter of our discount tent” (Sign in front of a camping shop) </li></ul></ul>
  82. 98. <ul><li>Words sound like what they represent. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: ON-a-MAT-a-PEE-a </li></ul><ul><li>Think of two examples you know of. </li></ul>
  83. 99. <ul><li>&quot;One of these days, Alice. Pow! Right in the kisser!&quot; (Jackie Gleason, The Honeymooners ) </li></ul>
  84. 100. <ul><li>List five examples of words that are onomatopoeia </li></ul>
  85. 101. <ul><li>Irony is tricky to define. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not just bad luck. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where there is a difference between what you write and what is understood. </li></ul></ul>
  86. 102. <ul><li>“ I threw my umbrella away; it rained for a week”. </li></ul>
  87. 103. <ul><li>Ironic </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these things are really ironic? </li></ul>
  88. 104. <ul><li>&quot;O western wind, when wilt thou blow That the small rain down can rain?“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ She sells sea shells by the sea shore.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Police were called to a day-care centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I could not, would not in the rain. I could not, would not on a train” </li></ul><ul><li>“ My head feels like a watermelon” </li></ul>

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