Deﬁnition• Industrial Revolution (n) the rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. It was characterized by the use of steam power, the growth of factories, and the mass production of manufactured goods.
Questions Answered• When did it occur? • It occurred in the late 18th and 19th centuries• Where did it begin? • It began in Britain• What countries participated in it? • Germany, the United States, and France
Urbanization• What is Urbanization? • Urbanization or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as the result of a global change.• What is the cottage industry? • A cottage industry is a primarily manufacturing industry which includes many producers working from their homes, typically part time.• The migration of people from rural to urban during the Industrial Revolution.• Why did people move from farms to cities during the Industrial Revolution? • The people moved from farms to cities to work in factories and make money instead of just sustaining themselves with the foods and products that they grew and made for themselves.
Agricultural Revolution• The agricultural revolution led to the Industrial Revolution by providing a surplus of food and supplies. When people stopped having to worry about food, they were able to start moving forward with other things.• Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons.
Textiles• Textiles were the ﬁrst commodity to boom in the industrial revolution.• What are textiles? • Textiles (n) the branch of industry involved in the manufacture of cloth• Inventions like the cotton gin, the steam engine, and the loom helped the textile industry boom.• Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.
Steam Engine• Thomas Savery invented the steam engine; James Watt improved it• It was invented in 1775• It provided a reliable source of power to factories and shipping
Bessemer Process• A steelmaking process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig-iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort• Henry Bessemer came up with it• It revolutionized steel making by making it cheaper
Pasteurization• Louis Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist• He invented pasteurization, which killed dangerous bacteria in milk and made it safer and easier to sell milk.
Thomas Edison• Thomas Edison invented the light bulb, the phonograph, and the kinetoscope.• He had 1,093 U.S. patents I never did a day’s work in my life. It was all fun. - Thomas Edison
Romanticism• A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual• The Romantic movement ﬁrst started as a negative reaction to the French export of Enlightenment theories as universal scientiﬁc rules governing all humans and emphasized the uniqueness of the human being and the mysterious nature of the human mind• Charles Dickens and Mary Shelley were authors of the time