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  1. 1. Martin Luther:Arguably the most important historical figure Of his era By: Molly Walker APWH, Ms. McEachen Lesson 15 PBA/EQDB Final Product
  2. 2. Brief Biography •Born on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben, Germany •Family devoid of warmth and affection •Beaten by both parents •“It was this harshness and severity of the life I led with them that forced me subsequently to run away to a monastery and become a monk” •Ordained to priesthood in 1507 •Began protesting the sale of church indulgences in 1517 •(stated it is God’s will to forgive, not the Church’s based on monetary payment)
  3. 3. What started it all: The 95 Theses•Written in 1517•Called the “primary catalyst”for the Protestant Revolution•Tacked the theses to the doorof door of the Castle Church ofWittenberg on October31, 1517 •(also known as All Saints Day)•Luther also translated the textinto German•Pope issued rebuttal toTheses • (Exsurge Domine)•Main topics include: •Indulgences •Clerical abuses •Absolution •Baptism
  4. 4. So…what did Luther’s Reformation preach? •Luther and Protestants believed (unlike the Catholics) that the bible should be printed in the “people’s language”, not simply Latin •Introduced the notion that God can be sought without the Pope or leaders in fancy robes•Brought to light the idea that only God, not the Church itself, can forigve sins •Believed that churches did not have to be ornate to celebrate God •JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH (Luther’s Key Tenet): A sinner is declared righteous by God through faith alone, by God’s grace
  5. 5. What Happened to Luther?•Luther was excommunicated fromthe Church by the Pope on January3, 1521 •The Pope had warned Luther if he did not renounce 41 sentences of his Theses, such a fate would occur •Luther responded by sending the Pope a copy of another of THE DIET OF WORMS ASSEMBLY his written pieces: On the Freedom of a Christian •Soon after, Luther’s writings were banned by the general assembly (The Diet of Worms) of the Holy Roman empire •The Diet of Worms also made it legal to kill Luther and illegal to give him food or shelter
  6. 6. •Luther took refuge at Wartburg Castlebefore returning the WittenburgCastle, place where he posted theTheses, years later •Translated the New Testament to German and continued his attacks on the traditional Church •Created many hymns (even inspired Johann Sebastian Bach) What happened to •Began to dispute some passages of the Bible (like the rich man and Luther? Lazarus) (continued) •Posters depicting him of a large and forboding size actually helped to spread his new religious ideas •Grew poor in health (suffered from cataracts, kidney stones, and arthritis) •Died shortly after a severe stroke robbed him of the ability to speak on February 18, 1546
  7. 7. Impacts of Luther’s Reformation •Divided Christians • Helped to reconfigure many religious beliefs across the European region • Challenged the authority of the Church and the Pope • Allowed kings to regain some of their absolute control taken by the Church previously •Raised speculation regarding the concept of a feudal government •Conjured up democratic ideas and thoughts that would later be used in other revolutions
  8. 8. Other than change the course of Western civilization…. What else did Luther do? • Luther translated the bible into German, making it both more accessible to the people and furthering the development of the German language•The bible was then able to be mass produced in combination with the printing press •Literacy spread as a result of more of the world’s population learning to read via the word of God
  9. 9. Martin Luther:Arguably the most important historical figure Of his era SEE WHY? By: Molly Walker APWH, Ms. McEachen Lesson 15 PBA/EQDB Final Product