What Role Does Hypnosis Play in Psychological Treatments? By: Molly Walker Section Four, Mrs. Wheeler AP Psychology Final Project: “Pysch Fair”
What is Hypnosis?•Defined as “a social interaction in which one person(the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) thatcertain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviorswill spontaneously occur”•Such techniques have been used since antiquity – thebeginning of time!•First person to gain widespread credit for hypnosis:Austrian physician Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) •Known for experiment in which magnets were passed over the bodies of ill people who were hypnotized, and would then wake up feeling better Austrian physician Anton •Later study commissioned by Benjamin Franklin Mesmer, who first gained found no evidence of this “animal magnetism” name association with hypnosis. Anton Mesmer. N.d. Painting. Library ThinkQuestWeb. 21 May 2012. <http://elvers.us/hop/index.asp?m=3&a=77&k ey=49>.
•Power of hypnosis depends on theperson’s openness to suggestion – no magic here! •Nearly everyone is somewhat suggestible, although only 20% areconsidered “highly hypnotizable” (these individuals generally possess rich imaginative activity) • What can hypnosis NOT do? •Not admissible in court cases (“falsified memories”) •Cannot induce people to act against their will (only authoritative persons in a legitimate context can, not hypnosis itself)
How is Hypnosis Used in Treatments?Hypnosis is used for treatments, but they can only help patients try to harness their own healing powers. Treatments hypnosis is used for: •Headaches •Asthma •Stress-related skin disorders •Weight Loss •Pain alleviation •Enhanced athletic/entertainment performance
Posthypnotic Suggestions = the cornerstone to hypnosis treatment! - A suggestion made during a session to be carried out after thesubject is not longer hypnotized - Used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptomsor behaviorHow does it work? Many theories on the matter… - Selective Attention: Instead of actually reducing pain, subjectis merely distracted - Dissociation: Dissociates the sensation of pain stimulus fromemotional suffering - Social Phenomenon: Subjects are “actors who get caught upin their roles”; play the “good subject”The key to remember? - No one really knows for sure, but the most moderate theoryproposes that hynposis is an extension of both normal social influenceand everyday dissociations.
Success Rates of Hypnosis in TreatmentRecent experiments have found hynposis does affect the brain- 2003 study by Patterson and Jensen (PhD) finds hypnosis effective in the decreasing ofsensitivity to pain, need for sedation, vomiting, nausea, etc.-Phrasing of hypnotic suggestion can influence if sensory components of brain respond-Such findings conclude that hypnotic treatment was superior in results to standard treatment-Meta-analysis of 18 studies (Montgomery, DuHamel, Redd 2000) showed 75% of participantsreceived pain relief from hypnotic techniques-In a 2002 review of 20 studies on hypnosis and surgical pain, "Mount Sinai researchers foundthat adding hypnosis to standard post-surgical care sped recovery almost 90% of the time, interms of pain, anxiety and need for pain killers.“-1996 meta-analysis study conducted at the University of Connecticut and published in theJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology found people using hypnosis were able to lose, onaverage, almost 2.5 times as much weight as those not using hypnosis.Other experiments tell otherwise-Labor pain in women is no better relieved by hypnosis than by relaxing or distraction (Chaves1989, D’Eon 1989)- PET scans revealed hypnosis reduces brain activity in regions that process pain, but not in thesensory cortex that receives the raw sensory input (Rainville 1997)
Research on Hypnosis Treatment: The Child Insomnia Case This study was conducted to determine whether or not hypnosis proved an effective treatment for insomnia in school-age children as young as seven years old. The conclusion? “Instruction in hypnosis, and insight derived from its use, appear tofacilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children as young as 7 years.” (Anbar and Slothower, 2006)
Is it widely accepted in the scientific community? Hypnosis has been considered a legitimatetreatment tool by the American Medical Association since 1958. The NIH also certified hypnosis as an effective intervention in 1996. *Stay tuned, though – not every organization feels the same way! "The study of hypnotic phenomena is now squarely in the domain of normal cognitive science, with papers on hypnosis published in some of the most selective scientific andmedical journals." (The Scientific American, "The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis." Michael Nash, July 17, 2001)
Celebrities who use Hypnosis Treatment •Tiger Woods, professional golfer, uses hypnosis regularly to improve his golfing performance (watch him closely next time you watch a golf tournament – he blinks his eyes twice, a hypnosis technique) •Image citation: Tiger Woods. 2012. Photograph. People MagazineWeb. 21 May 2012. <http://www.people.com/people/tiger_woods/0,,,00.html>. •Mozart allegedly composed an opera while under hypnotic influence •Image citation: Mozart. Painting. Mary Kunz Goldman: Music Critic BlogWeb. 21 May 2012. <http://goldmanmusic.blogspot.com/2012/02/for- mozart-fans-trip-back-in-time.html>. •Henry Ford and Thomas Edison were also loyal hypnosis patients •Jacqueline Kennedy used hypnosis to cope with the assassination of her husband •Image citation: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. N.d. Photograph. Jackie Kennedy at BlogspotWeb. 21 May 2012. <http://jackie- kennedy.blogspot.com/>. •The LA Lakers coach admits to using hypnosis on players Shaquille O’Neal and Kobe Bryant •Image citation: Shaquille ONeal. N.d. Photograph. IMDbWeb. 21 May 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0641944/>.
•Hypnosis, despite its varying effects, is NOT considered a type of psychotherapy – at least, not according to the American Psychology Association. •The APA maintains that hypnosis “is not a treatment in and of itself; rather, it is a procedure that can be used to facilitate other types of therapies and treatments.”•In other words, hypnosis is considered an addition to treatment by the APA. •If using hypnosis, ensure that you see only a credited health careprofessional that has been trained in the technique and its limitations. •Be vigilant and make sure that the clinician is working within the limits of their professional expertise.
Works CitedAnbar, Ran, and Molly Slothower. United States. National Institutes of Health. Hypnosis forTreatment of Insomnia in School-age children: A Retrospective Chart Review. Syracuse: StateUniversity of New York Upstate Medical University, 2006. Web.<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559690/>.Gregory, Sean. "Tiger at the Masters: An Ultimate Test of Toughness." TIME Magazine. 05 May 2010:n. page. Web. 15 May. 2012.<http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1977581,00.html>."Hypnosis for the Relief and Control of Pain." Research in Psychology: Research in Action. AmericanPsychological Association, 02 July 2004. Web. 14 May 2012.<http://www.apa.org/research/action/hypnosis.asp&xgt;. > Any image with this star next to it came from"Hypnosis in the Medical Community." Positive Changes. Positive Changes, 2012. Web. 14 May 2012. Microsoft Office<http://www.positivechanges.com/hypnosis-medical.php>. Clipart"Hypnosis Today: Looking Beyond the Media Portrayal." Psychology Topics: Hypnosis. AmericanPsychological Association, 2012. Web. 14 May 2012.<http://www.apa.org/topics/hypnosis/media.asp&xgt;. >Meyers, David G. Psychology. Eighth Edition. New York: Worth Publishers, 2007. 290-295. Print.Winerman, Lea. "From the Stage to the Lab: Neuroimaging studies are helping hypnosis shed itsoccult connotations by finding that its effects on the brain are real." Monitor on Psychology. 37.3(2006): n. page. Web. 14 May. 2012. <http://www.apa.org/monitor/mar06/lab.asp&xgt;. >