Covered Bridges


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A Powerpoint on covered bridges or Dr. Frawley's Aesthetic Ed class.

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Covered Bridges

  1. 1. Covered Bridges (The Waterford Covered Bridge)<br />By: Molly Yovich, Shana Brown, Katie Felong<br />
  2. 2. A Song About Covered Bridges<br />While listening to the The Red Covered Bridge by Steve Ivey remember what we learned about blues songs previously and reflect on what you might already know about covered bridges or ideas that you might have based on the introduction-slide pictures. Think of questions about covered bridges.<br />Have some questions? Good! Hopefully this PowerPoint will answer them!<br />
  3. 3. Molly, Shana, and Katie’s Questions!<br /><ul><li>Where did the bridges come from?
  4. 4. Who had them first?
  5. 5. Who used the first covered bridge?
  6. 6. When were covered bridges first built?
  7. 7. Were they always red?
  8. 8. When were they most popular?
  9. 9. Why are they covered?
  10. 10. What are some of their many uses?
  11. 11. What purpose did they serve?
  12. 12. What materials are they made out of?
  13. 13. Were they the precursor to tunnels?
  14. 14. What are they used for today?
  15. 15. What is their structure like?
  16. 16. Where are they most used?</li></li></ul><li>Mind Map<br />These were some words that came to our minds while doing the project… What words come to your mind?<br />
  17. 17. Molly’s Thoughts Before the Visit:<br />I have lived in the area my whole life and have been to this bridge and many other covered bridges, but I have never gone to the bridge to look at it as a piece of art. I have always thought it was beautiful but never thought of it as art. This class has taught me to look at everyday objects and look at them like art so as I was heading to the bridge I was thinking of all the readings that we did and remembering all the memories at the bridge.<br />
  18. 18. Shana’s Thoughts Before the Visit:<br />I’ve never had the opportunity to see a covered bridge before and I think it’ll be a really interesting experience. I picture them to be something like the barriers on a miniature golf course, except with room for a vehicle to drive through. <br />I’ve been told that most of them are old, so I don’t know how nice it will look. It probably looked better when it was new, but I still think it will be a really cool thing to see and think about in terms of this project.<br />
  19. 19. Katie’s Thoughts Before the Visit:<br />Right after Molly suggested that we do covered bridged, I Googled them. I immediately remembered several that I had seen in my life. I didn’t think too much more about it, until we visited the one in Waterford. I remembered them looking something like a barn over a road, which was over water. I didn’t have any idea of details. For some reason, once I saw the brige, it was nothing like (maybe because I was using an “aesthetic filter”) I remembered covered bridges looking like, but it was still gorgeous.<br />
  20. 20. A Short History of (Non- Covered) Bridges<br />Ancient Babylon (780 B.C.)<br /><ul><li>Had a hundred stone piers which supported wooden beams of cedar, cypress and palm
  21. 21. Could be as long as 35 ft. wide and 600 ft long with a removable floor.</li></ul>China (2300 B.C.)<br /><ul><li>Had floating bridges that looked like pontoon bridges
  22. 22. They were 30 ft long that were anchored side by side so it would be a bridge</li></ul>Romans<br /><ul><li>First to realize that timber structures embedded in water have a short life
  23. 23. Preserved timber by soaking it in oil and resin to protect it
  24. 24. Learned that hardwoods were more durable than softwoods
  25. 25. Used lime mortar and pozzolanic cement to hold it together which produced waterproof concrete</li></li></ul><li>The First Covered Bridges<br /><ul><li>The first covered bridge in America was built in 1804 and was not intended to be a covered bridge, but a cover was added anyway.
  26. 26. It was in Schuylkill, Pennsylvania
  27. 27. It’s called the Permanent Bridge
  28. 28. Designed by Thomas Palmer
  29. 29. The next bridge built was done so by Lewis Wernwag, a German engineer
  30. 30. -Soon after, similar bridges popped up all over the world</li></li></ul><li>Early Covered Bridges<br /><ul><li>1851 First and Second recorded bridge built in Oregon and both were swept away by floods
  31. 31. By 1870s covered bridges were frequently made and used.</li></li></ul><li>Why Are the Bridges Covered?<br /><ul><li>Improves the overall structure
  32. 32. Strong environmental factors cause the bridges to fail sooner than they would without the factors.
  33. 33. A housed timber truss lasts longer than uncovered ones
  34. 34. The shade from the sun keeps the bridges in good condition</li></li></ul><li>Uses<br /><ul><li>River crossing
  35. 35. Weddings
  36. 36. Political Rallies
  37. 37. Religious Meetings
  38. 38. Night’s sleep for tramps
  39. 39. Town Meetings
  40. 40. Sweetheart’s rendezvous
  41. 41. Fights
  42. 42. Dances
  43. 43. Landmarks</li></li></ul><li>Architecture<br />“…Most bridge carpenters, being neither engineers nor architects, contributed little in the way of structural or architectural innovations; instead they doggedly directed whatever artistic instincts they possessed toward making the portal distinctive. For the most part they succeeded only in constructing an inarticulate floating box." (Nelson).<br /><ul><li>Wood used for trusses
  44. 44. Nails
  45. 45. Other metal parts (bolts)
  46. 46. Metal side rails (added on later/ in newer ones)</li></li></ul><li>Today<br /><ul><li>Most have colorful histories
  47. 47. Many have been restored
  48. 48. Many are protected
  49. 49. Most provide a glance back into the past</li></li></ul><li>Our Experience!<br />
  50. 50. Sights<br />
  51. 51. Sounds<br />
  52. 52. Smells<br />
  53. 53. Touch<br />
  54. 54. General Thoughts After The Visit:<br />We all learned many different things but overall we came away thinking that we chose a great piece of art to look at and to study. We all enjoyed doing research to find out more about them and we enjoyed getting off campus to experience something new!<br />
  55. 55. Activities<br />Art: For an art activity, the children could build bridges out of different materials, such as popsicle sticks and red paint. This would teach about the materials that they used to make covered bridges.<br />Music: For a music activity, we could listen to songs about bridges and discuss the meaning behind the songs and the different types of music. This would teach about culture and appreciation in music.<br />Geography: For a geography activity, the children could do research and find out where all the covered bridges are and map them on a huge map. This would teach the children about different places on a map and where the majority of covered bridges are located.<br />
  56. 56. Activities (Continued)<br />Math: For a math activity, students could take the measurements of (or look at a chart of measurements of) a number of covered bridges and find the average length, height, width, etc. of covered bridges.<br />Social Studies: For a social studies activity, students could research the history of a covered bridge in their area and create a poster or some other sort of presentation tool that includes when the bridge was built and whether it was ever used for any specific activity in the past.<br />Science: For a field trip the class could visit a covered bridge and study the ecosystem around it. The students could study the water and the animals that live around the bridge.<br />
  57. 57. Activities (Continued)<br />Stretch Break: Using prior learning the teacher can ask the students if they remember the song London Bridge. The class can briefly go over the song before changing “London Bridge” to “Covered Bridge”, then the students can play the London Bridge Game.<br /><br />
  58. 58. Lines of Inquiry<br />-Pedagogical<br />Consider how the covered bridge may have changed over time as weathering and time took its toll. How has it developed into what it is today.<br />-Aesthetic<br />Consider how other art forms can be used in connection with covered bridges in order to improve the aesthetics of both.<br />
  59. 59. Cites<br />Nelson, Lee H. (1976). A Century of Oregon Covered Bridges 1851-1952. Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society.<br /><br /><br /><br />