© 2014 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Chapter 4
Policing:
Pur...
© 2014 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Summari...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.1 Explain the pol...
“The basic mission for which
the police exist is to reduce
crime and disorder.” Sir Robert
Peel, 1822
Principles of Polici...
The Police Mission4.1
Preserving the
Peace
Preventing
Crime
Apprehending
Offenders
Enforcing the
Law
Providing Services
Enforcing the Law, Apprehending Offenders
6
• Enforcing the law
– Not the only job of the police; majority of time is spen...
Preventing Crime
7
• Preventing crime
– Anticipating, recognizing, and appraising a crime risk and
acting to eliminate or ...
Predicting Crime
8
CompStat – A crime-analysis and police-management process built on
crime-mapping that was developed by ...
Preserving the Peace
9
• Preserving the peace
– Fighting crime by combating quality-of-life offenses
• Minor offenses that...
Providing Services
10
• Providing services
– Calls received by 911 operators are prioritized and then
relayed to patrol of...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.2
Describe the th...
Federal Agencies4.2
1212
The federal
government
employs 137,929
agents authorized to
conduct criminal
investigations,
exec...
Federal Bureau of Investigation4.2
13
– The FBI began in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation. FBI history
– 13,000 special...
State Law Enforcement Agencies4.2
Most state agencies were created to meet specific needs, e.g., the
Texas Rangers were fo...
California State Agencies4.2
15
Office of the Attorney General
California Department of Justice
California Bureau of Firea...
State Police Agencies: Centralized
16
4.2
• The tasks of major criminal investigations are
combined with state highway pat...
State Police Agencies: Decentralized
17
4.2
• Draws clear distinction between traffic
enforcement on state highways and ot...
18
0
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
Local Police Agencies4.2
While most local agencies employ less...
Fusion Centers: JTTF, RTTF4.2
19
Fusion Centers – a new concept in policing
• Multiagency law enforcement facility designe...
Private Protective Services
20
4.2
Private Protective Services
- Independent or proprietary commercial
organizations that ...
International Police Agencies
21
4.2
International Police Agencies
• International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.3
Summarize the t...
Gangs
Drug Education
Child Abuse
Domestic Violence
Victims’ Services
Criminal Investigation
(Detective Services)
Crime Pre...
Police Administration
24
4.3
• Line operations: Field or supervisory activities directly related
to daily police work, e.g...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.4
Summarize the h...
Builds on
relationship
with
community to
gather
actionable
intelligence
fight terrorism
Agencies
share
information,
joint ...
Styles of Modern Policing
Service
• Focus on meeting
community needs
• More likely to refer
citizens to
community
resource...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.5
Describe commun...
Transition to Community Policing
29
4.5
• Police Community Relations (PCR) – Reaction to poor
public/police relations stem...
com·mun·i·ty po·lic·ing n
Philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the
systematic use of partners...
Community Policing
31
4.5
• Community policing involves at least one of four elements:
1. Community-based crime prevention...
Strategic Policing
Problem-
Solving
Policing
Community
Policing
Policing Strategies
32
4.5
• Strategic policing – Reform e...
Police-Community Relations
33
4.5
• Critiques of community policing
– Difficult to determine effectiveness
– Some police u...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.6
Explain evidenc...
Evidence-Based Policing4.6
• Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) – A
now-defunct federal agency that funded s...
Evidence-Based Policing4.6
The Kansas City Experiment
• The first large-scale scientific study of police practices
• Focus...
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes
4.7
Explain how pol...
Discretion and the Individual Officer4.7
Officers at the street level have extremely broad discretion over
what laws to en...
© 2014 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Most po...
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ADMJ2 - Intro to ADMJ - Chapter 4

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ADMJ2 - Intro to ADMJ - Chapter 4

  1. 1. © 2014 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved Chapter 4 Policing: Purpose and Organization Scott Moller, JD Introduction to Administration of Justice
  2. 2. © 2014 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Summarize the typical organizational structure of a police department. Describe the three major levels of public law enforcement in the United States today. Explain the police mission in democratic societies. Summarize the historical development of US policing, and describe the characteristics of each stage. CHAPTEROBJECTIVES 4.5 Describe community policing, and explain how it differs from traditional forms of policing. 4.6 4.7 Explain evidence-based policing, and demonstrate the potential it holds in the area of police management. Explain how police discretion affects law enforcement.
  3. 3. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.1 Explain the police mission in democratic societies.
  4. 4. “The basic mission for which the police exist is to reduce crime and disorder.” Sir Robert Peel, 1822 Principles of Policing – Sir Robert Peel4.1 POLICING IN A DEMOCRACY Compare: 1. Nazi video (5:20) 2. Questioning police video (2:09) 1. Police/public interdependence 2. Police duty to prevent crime & disorder, not detect crime 3. Police power depends on earning approval & respect of willing public 4. Police to demonstrate absolute impartial service to law 5. Police to maintain tradition that police are the public, public are the police 6. Test of efficiency is absence of crime & disorder, not evidence of police efforts
  5. 5. The Police Mission4.1 Preserving the Peace Preventing Crime Apprehending Offenders Enforcing the Law Providing Services
  6. 6. Enforcing the Law, Apprehending Offenders 6 • Enforcing the law – Not the only job of the police; majority of time is spent answering nonemergency public service calls – Only about 10% to 20% of all calls involve situations that actually require a law enforcement response/arrest – Police cannot enforce all laws – Police tend to tailor enforcement efforts to meet the concerns of the populace they serve 4.1 • Apprehending offenders – Many offenders are only caught as the result of extensive police work involving investigation – Timothy McVeigh captured within 90 minutes of Oklahoma City bombing, via traffic stop, FBI profiler, communication between police agencies
  7. 7. Preventing Crime 7 • Preventing crime – Anticipating, recognizing, and appraising a crime risk and acting to eliminate or reduce it – Techniques and programs • Techniques include access control, surveillance, theft- deterrent devices, CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) – Prevention programs are organized efforts that focus resources on reducing a specific form of criminal threat • Target school-based crime, gang activity, drug abuse, violence, domestic abuse • Neighborhood Watch, Crime Stoppers USA 4.1
  8. 8. Predicting Crime 8 CompStat – A crime-analysis and police-management process built on crime-mapping that was developed by the NYPD in the mid-1990s 1. 911 calls and officer reports are collected and analyzed 2. This information is then mapped 3. The resulting map sequences, generated over time, reveal the time and place of crime patterns and identify hot spots of ongoing criminal activity LAPD CompStat video (4:55) Chicago citywide crime stats Monterey Area Crime Rates CrimeStat – Provides statistical tools for crime-mapping 4.1
  9. 9. Preserving the Peace 9 • Preserving the peace – Fighting crime by combating quality-of-life offenses • Minor offenses that demoralize communities, create physical disorder or reflect social decay – Restore a sense of order, reduce the fear of crime, and lessen the number of serious crimes that occur – Broken windows model of policing 4.1 • Study: Researchers abandoned cars: 1. in the Bronx – stripped within 24 hours) 2. in Palo Alto – left untouched for over a week – until it was damaged, signaling lack of accountability; then vandals descended on it.
  10. 10. Providing Services 10 • Providing services – Calls received by 911 operators are prioritized and then relayed to patrol officers, specialized field units, or other emergency personnel – Crimereports.com – enter a location and see a current crime map 4.1
  11. 11. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.2 Describe the three major levels of public law enforcement in the United States today: Federal, State and Local
  12. 12. Federal Agencies4.2 1212 The federal government employs 137,929 agents authorized to conduct criminal investigations, execute search warrants, arrest, or carry firearms See Table 4-1, p. 97 of your text for an extensive list.
  13. 13. Federal Bureau of Investigation4.2 13 – The FBI began in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation. FBI history – 13,000 special agents assigned to 56 field offices and 400 satellite offices, plus legats – attaché offices in major cities around the world – Since 9/11, counterterrorism is top priority at the FBI – Operates the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a forensic database of DNA profiles of offenders – Provides free crime lab services, training for law enforcement FBI career paths: • Special Agent • Professional Staff
  14. 14. State Law Enforcement Agencies4.2 Most state agencies were created to meet specific needs, e.g., the Texas Rangers were formed in 1835 to patrol the borders of Texas (not yet a state) and apprehend Mexican cattle rustlers. Current state law enforcement agencies tend to fall into the categories shown below: • Alcohol law enforcement • Fish and wildlife • Highway patrol • Port authorities • State bureaus of investigation • State park services • State police • State university police • Weigh station operations
  15. 15. California State Agencies4.2 15 Office of the Attorney General California Department of Justice California Bureau of Firearms - Special Agents California Bureau of Forensic Services California Bureau of Gambling Control - Special Agents Bureau of Investigation - Special Agents California Bureau of Medi-Cal Fraud & Elder Abuse - Special Agents California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation California Office of Correctional Safety - State Fugitive Apprehension Teams & Special Service Unit California Department of State Hospitals California State Hospital Police Officers California Department of Fish and Game, Game Wardens California Highway Patrol California State Parks, California State Park Rangers California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control Department of Insurance California Department of Motor Vehicles Franchise Tax Board California Lottery Security and Law Enforcement Division California Department of Consumer Affairs, Division of Investigation California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection California Department of Health Care Services
  16. 16. State Police Agencies: Centralized 16 4.2 • The tasks of major criminal investigations are combined with state highway patrol • Centralized state police agencies generally: – Patrol state highways – Assist local law enforcement in investigations when asked – Operate a centralized identification bureau, criminal records repository – Provide training for local police – Used in DE, MI, NJ, NY, PN, VT
  17. 17. State Police Agencies: Decentralized 17 4.2 • Draws clear distinction between traffic enforcement on state highways and other state level law enforcement functions by creating at least two separate agencies – Usually have a number of other adjunct state-level law enforcement agencies – Separate state agencies for: – Highway patrol – State bureau of investigation – Sometimes additional – Used in GA, NC, SC
  18. 18. 18 0 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 Local Police Agencies4.2 While most local agencies employ less than 10 full- time officers, major city police departments have a dominant presence in law enforcement. Local police agencies include: • Campus police • City/county agencies • Constables • Coroners/medical examiners • Housing authority • Marine patrol • Municipal police departments • Sheriff’s departments • Tribal police
  19. 19. Fusion Centers: JTTF, RTTF4.2 19 Fusion Centers – a new concept in policing • Multiagency law enforcement facility designed to enhance cooperative efforts through a coordinated process for collecting, sharing, and analyzing information in order to develop actionable intelligence • Some fusion centers focus on specific issues, e.g.: • National Counterterrorism Center • National Gang Intelligence Center
  20. 20. Private Protective Services 20 4.2 Private Protective Services - Independent or proprietary commercial organizations that provide protective services to employers on a contractual basis ( Table 4-4)
  21. 21. International Police Agencies 21 4.2 International Police Agencies • International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) – International law enforcement organization that began operations in 1946 – 182 member nations today – No power to arrest, search/seize • European Police Office (Europol) – Integrated police intelligence-gathering and information dissemination arm of the member nations of the European Union – Maastricht Treaty, 1992 – Started limited operation in 1994 – Works with Interpol on international terrorism, drug trafficking, and human trafficking
  22. 22. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.3 Summarize the typical organizational structure of a police department.
  23. 23. Gangs Drug Education Child Abuse Domestic Violence Victims’ Services Criminal Investigation (Detective Services) Crime Prevention Patrol Division (First Responders) Specialty Support Services Support Services Bomb Squad Air Patrol Unit Reserve Police (Volunteers) Police Training Academy Narcotics/Vice Juveniles Major Crimes (Homicide, Burglary, Assault, Arson, Fraud) Typical Organizational Structure of a Police Department City Council, Mayor, or Police Commission Chief of Police Deputy Chief 23Sheriff Structure p. 109 Text Police Administration: Command Structure4.3 Police management – The administrative activities of controlling, directing, and coordinating police personnel, resources, and activities
  24. 24. Police Administration 24 4.3 • Line operations: Field or supervisory activities directly related to daily police work, e.g., officers on the street • Staff operations: Provide support for line operations, e.g., administrative office staff • Most police agencies have both line and staff operations, but some tiny departments have only line operations. • Police departments employ a quasi-military chain of command (line of authority that extends through all levels of an organization, from the highest to the lowest) • Unity of command – every person has only one supervisor to whom s/he reports • Span of control – number of personnel or units supervised by a particular commander
  25. 25. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.4 Summarize the historical development of policing in America, and describe the characteristics of each stage.
  26. 26. Builds on relationship with community to gather actionable intelligence fight terrorism Agencies share information, joint efforts Common in policing today Stresses police service role and a partnership between police and communities Quality of life offenses Pride in professional crime-fighting, led by August Vollmer Focused most resources on solving “traditional” crimes Historical Developments in US Policing4.4 The ILP/Homela nd Security Era 2001-Today The Community Policing Era 1970s- Today The Reform Era 1930-1970s The Political Era 1840s-1930 Close ties between police and public officials Police tended to maintain order, serve the interests of powerful politicians
  27. 27. Styles of Modern Policing Service • Focus on meeting community needs • More likely to refer citizens to community resources • Officers see themselves more as helpers than soldiers in a war on crime • Common today 27 Legalistic • Enforce the letter of the law • Avoid disputes that arise from violations of social norms but don’t break the law, behaviors that are simply bothersome • Characteristic of the Reform Era Watchman • Primary concern is order maintenance • Control illegal and disruptive behavior • Considerable use of discretion • Common in lower class areas • Characteristic of the Political Era 4.4
  28. 28. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.5 Describe community policing, and explain how it differs from traditional forms of policing.
  29. 29. Transition to Community Policing 29 4.5 • Police Community Relations (PCR) – Reaction to poor public/police relations stemming from 1960s altercations, departments assigned public relations officers to increase positive police/citizen interaction: storefronts, Neighborhood Watch, Operation ID. Sometimes just PR. • Team policing – 1960s-70s experiment, extending PCR and reorganizing conventional patrol strategies into “an integrated and versatile police team assigned to a fixed district,” with officers given considerable authority in processing complaints, from receipt through resolution, to deliver total police services to a neighborhood • Further extension of this idea led to community policing… PCR Team Policing Community Policing
  30. 30. com·mun·i·ty po·lic·ing n Philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships & problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime. Community Policing has three key components: 1. Community Partnerships – between the police, citizens, agencies, community groups, businesses & the media 2. Organizational Transformation – including despecialization & geographic assignment of officers 3. Problem-Solving – proactive, systematic examination of identified problems to develop & rigorously evaluate effective responses Community Policing4.5
  31. 31. Community Policing 31 4.5 • Community policing involves at least one of four elements: 1. Community-based crime prevention 2. Reorientation of patrol activities to emphasize the importance of nonemergency services 3. Increased police accountability to the public 4. Decentralization of command, including greater use of civilians at all levels of police decision-making • Community Policing Act of 1994 provided funds to: – Substantially increase the # of officers interacting with the public – Provide additional training to enhance problem-solving skills – Encourage innovative programs to permit community members to assist law enforcement – Encourage new technologies to assist law enforcement in preventing crime – Create Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS)
  32. 32. Strategic Policing Problem- Solving Policing Community Policing Policing Strategies 32 4.5 • Strategic policing – Reform era crime-fighting that uses innovative enforcement techniques to address broader array of crimes, e.g., gangs, drug networks, white collar/tech crimes. • Problem-solving policing – Service style policing that seeks to change social conditions and fight crime through use of community resources, attempts to involve citizens in crime prevention through education, negotiation, and conflict management • Community policing – A philosophy that promotes organizational strategies which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques. Seeks to actively involve the community in crime control; a two- way street that goes beyond strategic policing and problem-solving policing
  33. 33. Police-Community Relations 33 4.5 • Critiques of community policing – Difficult to determine effectiveness – Some police unwilling to accept non-traditional images of police work; efforts to promote community policing can demoralize the department – Some public officials unwilling to accept community policing that may conflict with performance criteria (e.g., arrests) – NY Mayor Giuliani – “too much social work…too few arrests” – Some citizens object to increased police interference – Define community. Each department has a limited geographical jurisdiction, but “community” is built around common interests, which may not coincide, especially with mass transit/communications/media.
  34. 34. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.6 Explain evidence-based policing, and demonstrate the potential that it holds in the area of police management.
  35. 35. Evidence-Based Policing4.6 • Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) – A now-defunct federal agency that funded state and local law enforcement agencies from 1969 to 1982 • Established a tradition of program evaluation within police- management circles • Scientific police management – Applying social science techniques to police administration to increase effectiveness, reduce citizen complaints, and enhance efficient use of resources. See NIJ, BJS, NCJRS • Evidence-based policing (EBP) uses research on everyday police procedures, outcomes of police work, to set guidelines and evaluate agencies, units, and officers. • This is a major determinant of funding; successful law enforcement executives will have to use research in their everyday work. See New Perspectives in Policing
  36. 36. Evidence-Based Policing4.6 The Kansas City Experiment • The first large-scale scientific study of police practices • Focused on preventive squad patrol • Divided city patrol zones into: 1. Proactive: twice the patrols 2. Reactive: no patrols 3. Control: same patrols • No significant differences in crime rate or citizen fear of crime. Conventional wisdom appears to be unfounded. • Directed patrol – A police-management strategy designed to put the most officers on the street where and when crime is most prevalent
  37. 37. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 4.7 Explain how police discretion affects contemporary law enforcement.
  38. 38. Discretion and the Individual Officer4.7 Officers at the street level have extremely broad discretion over what laws to enforce, how, against whom, and on which occasions; they often decide to handle matters informally, rather than strictly enforce the law. Officer discretion may be affected by: • Officer’s beliefs, background, personal lifestyle choices • Victim attitude: complaint made? Pressure to charge? Non- compliant? • Community interests and priorities • Subject’s attitude, gender, appearance • Department policy • Law involved: “victimless,” outdated? • Available alternatives, e.g., treatment programs, alternative dispute resolution centers
  39. 39. © 2014 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Most police departments are organized in a paramilitary fashion. The three major law enforcement levels are federal, state, and local. The police mission is to maintain peace and enforce the law. Four historical policing epochs are identified in this chapter: (1) the political era, (2) the reform era, (3) the community policing era, and (4) the new era CHAPTERSUMMARY Police discretion refers to the opportunity for police officers to exercise choice in their enforcement activities. Evidence-based policing involves the application of social science techniques to study police administration. 4.5 Community policing encourages police to work with interest-holders to identify and solve issues in the community. 4.6 4.7

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