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Mohenjo daro

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Mohenjo Daro, history, Indus Valley, two sections, Citadel, Lower Town, great bath, granary ,features, trade, arts, death..

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Mohenjo daro

  1. 1. MOHENJO DARO
  2. 2. Mohenjo Daro  The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE) located in the western region of South Asia, and spread over what are now Pakistan, Northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan.  Excavations first conducted in 1921-22, in the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, both now in Pakistan.  Believed to be created by the Dravidians.
  3. 3. Mohenjo Daro • The Indus city was made of mud-brick buildings. It had walls and roads. • Water was very important to Indus people, so the builders started by digging wells, and laying drains. • Most Indus people, perhaps 9 out of 10 people were farmers and traders.
  4. 4. Mohenjo Daro Mohenjo-Daro is divided into two section Citadel • Smaller in area but highly developed. Lower Town • Large in area but less developed than citadel.
  5. 5. Mohenjo Daro  At the western end of the site is an area known as the Citadel. This area of the city was built on top of a mound of bricks almost 12 metres high. A large staircase ran up the side of this mound.  Citadel area may have been used for public gatherings, religious activities or important administrative activities.
  6. 6. Mohenjo Daro  The "great bath" is without doubt the earliest public water tank in the ancient world.  Finely fitted bricks laid on edge with gypsum plaster and the side walls.  Most scholars agree that this tank would have been used for special religious functions where water was used to purify the bathers.
  7. 7. Mohenjo Daro  In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo-Daro as a "Great Granary".  Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain.  Granary is adjacent to the Great Bath.
  8. 8. Mohenjo Daro Lower Town  The "Lower Town" is made up of numerous lower mounds that lie to the east and may represent multiple walled neighborhoods.  The Lower Town is organized on a grid system with four avenues running from north to south and four running from east to west. The avenues are several meters wide and have drains running down the middle or side of the road.
  9. 9. Mohenjo Daro Features of Houses in Lower Town  Most of the homes are made of baked bricks in a standard size of 28 x 14 x 7 meters.  The remains of stairways, seems to suggest that many of the buildings had two storeys.
  10. 10. Mohenjo Daro  The houses were cool inside. Thick walls kept people cool in the heat of summer.  Walls were covered with mud plaster. It is not clear if people painted the walls.  The structure of the houses has one or more toilets or toilet connected to a centralized system.  Underground sewer pipes are said to be planned and organized by a centralized government.  Over 700 public and private wells have been found at Mohenjo-Daro.
  11. 11. Mohenjo Daro Trade  Indus Valley cities lived by trade. Farmers brought food into the cities. Trade goods included terracotta pots, beads, gold and silver, coloured gem stones, metals, seashells and pearls.
  12. 12. Arts  Most artifacts unearthed were toys indicating that the Dravidians liked entertainment and loved to play.  Their disappearance remains a mystery due to no traces of war were evident.
  13. 13. Possible Causes of Disappearance  Famine, hunger, drought.  Ecological factors/Natural disasters ◦ Flood. ◦ Earthquake. ◦ Volcanic Eruption.  Plagues.  Invasions by another civilization like the Aryans.

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