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Underground Coal Gasification - India & Global


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Status - India & Global,

Underground Coal Gasification - India & Global

  1. 1. UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION MOHAMMED KABIRUDDIN University of Petroleum & Energy Studies
  2. 2. UCG PRINCIPLES & ESSENTIALS Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) converts coal into a gaseous form (syngas) through the same chemical reactions that occur in surface gasifiers The economics of UCG look promising as capital expenses should be considerably less than surface gasification Essentials: Site location -biggest issue Coal characteristics–operations Technologies-connecting wells
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The technology was first widely used in the USA during the later 1800s. Indiain Calcutta (Kolkata) and Bombay (Mumbai) in early 1900. Lamplighters in many cities used to light streetlights by “town gas”, the product of early and relatively crude forms of coal gasification. 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 1912 Co. Durham UK First Test 1930’s Intensive Soviet Development 1950/60’s Early European Trials – inc. 1955 Newman Spinney – Ntl Coal Board 1970/80’s US Programme - 6 Major Trials 1980’s European Studies and First Trial Early 1990’s First US commercial designs Mid to late 1990’s El Tremedal, Spain European Trial DTI UCG Initiative (1999-2005) Australian Pilot 4 Firth of Forth Feasibility Study
  5. 5. WHY UCG NOW? Security of supply – indigenous coal  Production Costs for clean syngas – Un - mineable coal – Competitive against natural gas (EU, US) • Carbon Capture & Storage – Pre-combustion processing  Flexibility of Syngas for poly-generation – Local storage options – Existing or new power stations, GTL, SNG, H2 and other chemicals Advances in UCG Technology – Drilling, completion, control
  7. 7. CRITERIA FOR UCG UCG requires special properties of coal seam: Coal seam lays underground between 100 and 600 metres (preferably more than 300 metres) Thickness is more than 5 metres Ash content is less than 60% Minimal discontinuities in seam No good water aquifers 7
  9. 9. HOW DOES UCG WORK? Step 1: Find the coal Step 2: Drill the boreholes Step 3: Link the boreholes Step 4: Ignite the coal Step 5: Inject the O2 and steam Step 6: Extract the syngas
  10. 10. WORLD STATUS
  11. 11. WORLD SITES
  12. 12. UCG SITES
  13. 13. UCG SITES
  14. 14. US 31 tests involving DOE, Gulf, Texas A&M, GRI, ARCO Rocky Mountain Trial, 14,000 tons of coal 93 days Oxygen Fired CV 9-11 MJ/m3 Commercial scheme for ammonia production developed – not constructed
  15. 15. UCG HARNESS
  16. 16. Worldwide UCG operations experience with respect to coal seam depth and thickness(2004).
  17. 17. ANGREN UCG POWER STATION, UZBEKISTAN UCG  Co-fired Plant operating for 30 years UCG  used in dedicated 100MW steam turbine Linc  Energy have bought a majority stake in the plant
  18. 18. UCG IN SOUTH AFRICA Eskom  UCG Trial at Majuba Coal field, 3.5m thick at 300m depth (Jan 2007). Air-blown co-fired 350MWe IGCC unit planned Sasol  initiated a new UCG trial project at Secunda as a potential feedstock for CTL Plant.
  19. 19. CHINA China has over 50 large coal gasification facilities nationwide. China has executed at least 16 pilots since 1991, And has invested in extensive research programs at China University of Mining Technology in Beijing.
  20. 20. INDIA & WORLD There  is over 5 million PJ of resource for UCG gas in the United States, 2.2 million PJ of UCG gas in China, and 1.9 million PJ of UCG gas available in India. The  Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) has estimated that recoverable reserves could be increased by at least 300% to 400% and that 1.6 trillion tons of un-mineable coal in the USA may be recoverable with UCG.
  21. 21. AUSTRALIA The  World Energy Council’s 2007 Survey on Energy Resources estimates that 45% of Australia’s proven in place reserves, or 44 billion tonnes, is available for extraction by UCG. Applying  this same proportion to Queensland’s measured plus inferred sources of thermal coal, suggests that there are possibly 16 billion tonnes that may be available for UCG in Queensland.
  22. 22. AUSTRALIAN DEVELOPMENTS Linc Energy, – Successful share offering in 2006, now worth $1.5B – Development of a GTL plant is underway – New projects starting in S Australia, Vietnam & USA (Dec 08) Carbon Energy (2006) – Joint venture with CSIRO gas now started (Oct 2007) Cougar Energy (2007) – Site for 400MW CCGT Plant in S Australia – Using Ergo energy.
  25. 25. AUSTRALIA
  26. 26. AUSTRALIA
  27. 27. OTHER FEASIBLE AREAS Indonesia  Vietnam  Pakistan  (Thar Coalfield Power & GTL) Japan  Chinese Mining Companies,  e.g. Xinwen, Ezhuang Mongolia  New Zealand (Solid Energy) 
  28. 28. INDIA GAIL also plans to set up a coal gasification project in eastern India (Durgapur, Haldia, and Talcher) to produce 3.4 MSCMD of syngas. In September 2005, GAIL has signed an memorandum with the Shaanxi Huashan Chemical Industry group of China to undertake coal gasification activities in the Shaanxi province.
  29. 29. INDIA GAIL  (India) Ltd has signed a memorandum of cooperation with Ergo Exergy Technologies Inc., Canada, to explore UCG projects in India. Ergo  Exergy will help GAIL to i) determine the technical and economic viability of each project ii) bring in efficient drilling techniques and production of UCG gas in commercial quantity with quality.
  30. 30. NTPC VIEW
  31. 31. UCG IN INDIA The  Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. (NLC), which has got Government approval for taking-up a UCG Project in lignite deposits of Rajasthan, has not been able to get a suitable technical partner, so far. • The Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) has been exploring possibilities for taking up a UCG project in India.
  32. 32. UCG IN INDIA ONGC,  while drilling in search of hydrocarbons, discovered large reserves of coal at depths more than 600m. These  are spread in Gujarat and West Bengal and have been estimated to contain more than 350bt of coal deposit. In  Gujarat alone, these coal reserves have been estimated to be around 63 bt in Mehsana-Ahmedabad block and 60 bt in Patan-Tharad block.
  33. 33. UCG IN INDIA The  energy estimated for Mehsana - Ahmedabad block alone, is equivalent to about 15,000 bcm of natural gas. The  ONGC is conducting a pilot test in Mehsana area at an estimated cost of Rs 9.60 crores. • An Information Well – UCG-1 – was drilled in 1986 to a depth of 1005m at the selected site.
  35. 35. POSITIVE FACTORS 1. UCG is the only feasible technology, which enables exploitation of deep (> 700m) coal reserves, which are not amenable to known conventional mining methods. 2. UCG offers an environmentally clean way to harness energy from coal. 3. UCG brings no solid waste to the surface.
  36. 36. POSITIVE FACTORS 4. Even at shallower depths (< 500m), UCG can be more economical than conventional mining. 5. UCG reduces capital investment, operating costs, and the output gases cost by 25 to 50% as compared to surface gasification. 6. Possibilities of transport of medium calorific value gas over a distance of 100 km. exist.
  37. 37. POSITIVE FACTORS 7. Possibilities of using CO2 from the gas for enhanced oil recovery exist. 8. Basic UCG technology is known. 9. Conditions in India are far more compelling for adopting UCG than most locations in the world.
  38. 38. ANNUAL CASH FLOW FOR 1,000MW UCG GAS PLANT WITH CO2 CAPTURE (CO2 $20/TONNE) Internal rate of return 25-30%, (with storage) CO2credit 32% of revenue Syngas Utilisation Options 480 Mwe electrical power 10,00 bb/d diesel savings
  39. 39. ADVANTAGES: Much  higher coal extraction – up to 95% No pillars  Multiple seams  Thick and thin seams  More economic – less capital expenditure  Economic on a smaller scale  Potential to be cleaner technology – smaller  environmental footprint  Little or no rehabilitation required  No fine coal  No Ash  Safer 
  40. 40. DISADVANTAGES Potentialfor contamination Controllability of the reaction
  41. 41. CONCLUSION Viable alternative mining method for otherwise unminable coal Potential smaller environmental footprint than conventional process Better utilisation of coal reserves