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  1. 1. HACCP
  2. 2. HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointHACCP is a method of ensuring food safety byexamining every step in a food operation,identifying the steps that are critical to foodsafety and implementing effective control andmonitoring procedures at these steps.
  3. 3. HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointThe concept of HACCP and its development wasdirectly, connected with ‘Food Production andresearch’ project by Pillsbury Company for space travelprogramme. The main task of the Project was toguarantee that the food provided to the space travellerswas not contaminated microbially, chemically orphysically in a way that would lead a space missioneither to failure or to catastrophe.
  4. 4. Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP
  5. 5. Principle No.1Conduct Hazard Analysis• The potential hazards associated with a food are identified.• The list is prepared where significant hazards occur along with known preventive measures.• The hazard could be physical (P), chemical (C), biological (B) in nature or their combination. Some examples of these three types of hazards follow in the next pages. These hazards could have their origins from contaminated raw materials, equipment, personnel, handling etc., some details are provided in the following pages.
  6. 6. Physical HazardsSources of Physical hazards Hazardous material includes: • Field • Metal • Processing or handling • Glass • Distribution • Wood • Sabotage or tampering • Stones • Miscellaneous eg • Insects • struvite • Bone • Insulation
  7. 7. Chemical HazardsMain Sources include: • Food Chemicals Colours, flavours, preservatives, etc.• Plant Chemicals Cleaners, sanitisers, oil, petrol, etc.,• Agricultural Chemicals Fertilizedrs, fungicides, pesticides, antibiotics, growth hormones etc• Naturally occuring toxicants My cotoxins, histamine, ciguatera, poisonous shellfish, etc.
  8. 8. Biological Hazards • 2 types of microbiological diseases: • Infections • Intoxication • Micro-organisms of greatest concern: • Salmonella • Clostridium • Staphylococcus aurcus • Clostridium perfringens
  9. 9. Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd….. Principle No.2 Determine Critical Control Points The identification of CCPs requires professional judgement and may be aided by the application of decision tree. When using a decision tree each process step is identified in the flow diagram and must be considered in sequence.• Application of decision tree will determine whether or not the process step is a CCP for each specific identified hazards. There is no limit on the production of CCPs that may be identified in the study.• Those organisations who are so much used to their processes do not normally require the help of the application of the decision tree to determine the CCPs.• The use of the decision tree with four fundamental questions, which are asked, to determine CCPs is given in the following pages
  10. 10. Modify step, Modify Q 1 Q 1 process or product process or product Are control Are control measures measures being used being used to prevent a to prevent a yes hazard hazard No No Is control at this Is control at this No No step required for step required for safety? safety? yes yes Q 2 Q Q 3 Q 3 Does the step Does the step Does contamination Does contamination eliminate or eliminate occur at unacceptable occur at unacceptable No Noreduce the hazardreduce the hazard level or could it level or could it No No to an acceptable to an acceptable increased to level? level? unacceptable unacceptable levels? levels? No No Yes yes Not a CCP Not a CCP Yes Yes Q 4 Q 4 CRITICAL CRITICAL Will a subsequent step Will a subsequent step yes yes CONTROL CONTROL eliminate or reduce eliminate or reduce POINT the hazard to an the hazard to an acceptable acceptable level level Proceed to the next step Proceed to the next step in the process in the process
  11. 11. Questions 1 to 4 of the Decision Tree for CCP determination with explanationsQuestion No.1: Are control measures in place for thehazard?If the answer is YES the team should then consider Q2If the answer is NO (i.e. control measures are not in place for thehazard) the team must ask a supplementary question to determine ifcontrol is necessary at this step for product safety. If control is notnecessary then the step is not a CCP and the team should apply thedecision tree to the next identified hazard. If, however, the answer tothis supplementary question is YES, then it is necessary to modify thestep, process or product so that control is obtained.
  12. 12. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..During the analysis, the team may recommended a number ofchanges to the step, process or product that would allow controlto be achieved and the analysis to proceed. Prior to the nextformal meeting of the team, agreement must be reached withsenior management that an appropriate change is acceptableand will be implemented.
  13. 13. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..Question No.2: Does the process step eliminate orreduce the hazard to an acceptable level?The team should use flow diagram data to answer this questionfor each process step. The question will identify thoseprocessing steps that are designed to eliminate or reduce thehazard to an acceptable level. Acceptable and unacceptablelevels should be defined within the overall objectives inidentifying the critical control points of the HACCP plan.
  14. 14. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..When considering this question for microbiological hazards, theteam should take into account the appropriate product technicaldata (e.g. pH, Aw, level and type of preservatives, dimensionsof particulates, water droplet size) as well as the physicalprocess being applied. Pasteurization, cooking, aseptic packing,evisceration, preservative content and product structure areexamples of process steps that could be microbiological CCPsin the right context.
  15. 15. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..If the team considers the answer to Q2 to be YES then theprocess step under consideration is a CCP. They must identifyprecisely what is critical (i.e. is it an ingredient, a processsteps(s), the location or a practice/procedure associated withthe process step(s)) before applying the decision tree to thenext process step.If the answer to Q2 is NO then Q3 must be considered for thesame process step.
  16. 16. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..Question No.3: Could contamination with the hazardoccur at unacceptable level (s) or increase tounacceptable level(s)?The team should consider the flow diagram data and their ownworking knowledge of the process, to answer this question. Theteam should first consider whether any of the ingredients usedcould conceivably contain any of the hazards under discussionin excess of acceptable levels. In doing so the team should takeaccount epidemiological data, previous supplier performanceetc. If the teams are unsure of the answer to this part of thequestion they should assume the YES response.
  17. 17. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..The team should also consider whether the immediate processingenvironment (e.g. people, equipment, air, walls, floors, drains) maybe a source of the hazard under study and thereby contaminate theproduct. Once again the team should assume the YES responseunless they are confident that the answer is NO.When considering a possible increase in levels of the hazard, theteam should be aware that it is possible that a single process step willnot allow development of the hazard to unacceptable levels, but overa number of process steps the amount of increase may reachunacceptable levels due to the cumulative time and temperatureof…..
  18. 18. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..holding the product during processing. The team must thereforetake account of not only the specific process setup underdiscussion, but also the accumulated effect of subsequentprocess steps when answering the question. The team shouldinclude consideration of the following:
  19. 19. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..• Are the ingredients used likely to be a source of the hazard under study?• Is the process steps carried out in an environment likely to be a source of the hazard?• Is cross-contamination from another product/ingredient possible?• Are there any void spaces in equipment that will enable product to stagnate and allow increase of the hazard to unacceptable levels?• Are the cumulative time/temperature conditions such that the hazard will increase in the product to unacceptable levels?
  20. 20. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..If after taking account of all the factors the teams are confidentthat the answer to Q3 is NO, then this step is not a CCP and theteam should apply the decision tree to the next process step. Ifthe answer to Q3 is YES, then the teams should consider Q4 forthe same process step.
  21. 21. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..Question No.4: Will a subsequent process step eliminate orreduce the hazard to an acceptable level?Q4 Will only be considered if the team believes the answer to Q3 to be YES.The team must then proceed sequentially through the remaining process stepsof the flow diagram and determine if any subsequent processing step(s) willeliminate the hazard or reduce if to an acceptable level. Correct consumer usemust be included here if the product is being judged “safe at the point ofconsumption”.Q4 has a very important function when identifying CCPs, which is to allow thepresence of a hazard at a process step if that hazard will subsequently beeliminated or reduced to an acceptable level, either
  22. 22. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd… part of the process, or by the consumer’s actions (e.g. bycooking). If this is not done, every process step in an operationmight be regarded as critical leading to too many CCPS for aneffective, practical control system.Q3 & 4 are designed to work in tandem. For example, thepresence of Salmonella a raw meat ingredient for a ready - to -eat product prior to the cooking stage may be of concern but isnot likely to be a CCP because the product will be cookedduring processing.
  23. 23. Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..However the control of Salmonella in garnishes added to that sameproduct after cooking would be regarded as a CCP because nosubsequent process steps would eliminate the Salmonella or reducethe likely occurrence to an acceptable level.If the team judge that the answer to Q4 is YES they should then applythe decision tree to the next hazard, or to the next process step.If the answer to Q4 is NO then a CCP has been identified. In this case,the team must identify precisely what is critical, I.e. is it a raw material,a process step(s). When identified, the decision is made as to whetherthe existing control measure is sufficient.
  24. 24. Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd…..Principle No. 3 Establish Critical Limits for CCPsThe team would proceed to establish critical limits for the controlmeasures for each identified CCP. Critical limit is the criterion whichseparates acceptability from unacceptability. For example, temperatureand time to be used for pasteurization of milk.The specific target measures and tolerances laid for each of the controlmeasures must represent some measurable parameter related toeach of CCPs, which can be measured relatively quickly and easily orreferred to certain established norms.
  25. 25. Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd…..Principle No. 4 Establish A Monitoring System for each CCP.The team establishes monitoring systems for each CCP. Soundmonitoring system is essential to ensure that the specified criteria aremet A good monitoring system describes the methods by whichmanagement is able to confirm that all CCPs are operating withinspecifications and also it helps to maintain accurate records ofperformance for future used in verifications.Depending on the sensitivity of a process step, monitoring systemscould also be a continuous one.
  26. 26. Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd….. Principe No.5 Establish Corrective Action PlanThe team would then establish corrective actions specifying actions tobe taken as results of monitoring activities in order to correct anydeviation from the laid down limits that are critical to safety.Disposition actions need to be taken with food that has been producedduring the time period that the CCP was ‘out of control’.Both corrective action and disposition action should be documented inthe HACCP record keeping and the responsibility clearly assigned.
  27. 27. Principle No.6 VerificationThe team lays down procedures meant to be used to for verifyingcompliance of HACCP Plans and thus the over all HACCP system.Verification process should examine the entire HACCP system and itsrecords. The team specifies the methods and frequency of verificationprocedures. The verification activities may include internal/externalauditing systems and even microbiological examination of the productsamples.Where possible, validation activities of established critical limits, includingtarget levels and tolerances where used, should include actions to confirmthe efficacy of the criteria.
  28. 28. Principle No.7 Establish Documentation and Record keeping Established documentation and record keeping - Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the successful application of HACCP in a food processing unit. Only through the documentation a food processing unit is in a position to demonstrate that HACCP system is in place in accordance with the principles. Examples of documentation include:• Documentation of the system (Hazard analysis; CCP determination; Critical limit determination)• Procedures and work instructions and should be supported by records.
  29. 29. Examples record include:• Nature, source and quality of raw materials• Completing processing record, including storage and distribution• Cleaning and disinfection records• All decisions reached relating to product safety• Deviations file• Corrective/disposition action file• Modification file• Verification and Validation data• Review data