General science class x

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General science class x

  1. 1. It include three branches
  2. 2. 1808 John Dalton suggested that all matter was made up of tiny spheres called them ATOMS
  3. 3. 1898 Joseph John Thomson found that atoms could sometimes eject a far smaller negative particle which he called an ELECTRON
  4. 4. J.J. Thomson, measured mass/charge of e- (1906 Nobel Prize in Physics)
  5. 5.  Eugene Goldstein (1850- 1930) observed in 1886 that in a cathode-ray tube there were rays going in the opposite direction. He concluded they were positively charged particles. Proton are positively charged subatomic particles. Each proton has a mass about 1840 times that of an electron.
  6. 6.  In 1932 English physicist James Chadwick (1891-1974) confirmed the existence of another subatomic particle. Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge but a mass nearly equal to the proton.
  7. 7. 1910 Ernest Rutherford They fired Helium nuclei at a piece of gold foil which was only a few atoms thick. They found that while most of the helium nuclei passed through the foil, a small number were deflected and, to their surprise, some helium nuclei bounced straight back.
  8. 8. (1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107 m/s (~5% speed of light)1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e- (1.67 x 10-24 g)
  9. 9. Rutherford’s Model of the Atom atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 mnuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m
  10. 10. 1913 Niels Bohr studied under Rutherford at the Victoria University in Manchester. Bohr refined Rutherfords idea by adding that the electrons were in orbits. Rather like planets orbiting the sun. With each orbit only able to contain a set number of electrons.
  11. 11. Subatomic Particles Mass Charge Charge Particle (g) (Coulombs) (units)Electron (e-) 9.1 x 10-28 -1.6 x 10-19 -1Proton (p) 1.67 x 10-24 +1.6 x 10-19 +1Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10-24 0 0 mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e-
  12. 12. Nucleus - the central portion of the atom. Contains the protons and neutrons.Electron Cloud - area around the nucleus where electrons are found. Electrons are arranged within the electron cloud in energy levels (Energy levels are sometimes called shells or orbits).
  13. 13. Proton - positive charged particle found in the nucleus. Mass = 1 amu. (a.m.u - Atomic Mass Unit) p+1Neutron - particle with no charge. Found in the nucleus. Mass = 1 amu. nElectron - negative charged particle found within the electron cloud . Mass = 1/1836 amu. e-1
  14. 14. p+
  15. 15. HELIUM ATOM Shellproton + N - + - Nelectron neutronWhat do these particles consist of?
  16. 16. Proton Neutron Electron Electron shell / Electron cloud Nucleus The Atom
  17. 17. Particle Charge Massproton + ve charge 1neutron No charge 1electron -ve charge nil
  18. 18. ProtonMade of d3 Quarks1 up2 down u d
  19. 19. NeutronMade of3 Quarks u2 up1 down d u
  20. 20. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 4He Atomic number the number of protons in an atom 2 Atomic mass the number of protons and neutrons in an atomnumber of electrons = number of protons
  21. 21. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or Shells around the nucleus of an atom.• first shell a maximum of 2 electrons• second shell a maximum of 8 electrons• third shell a maximum of 8 electrons
  22. 22. Proton Neutron ElectronS orbital P orbital
  23. 23. ATOMIC STRUCTUREThere are two ways to represent the atomicstructure of an element or compound; 1. Electronic Configuration 2. Dot & Cross Diagrams
  24. 24. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONWith electronic configuration elements are representednumerically by the number of electrons in their shellsand number of shells. For example; Nitrogen configuration = 2,5 14 N 2 in 1st shell 2 + 5 = 7 5 in 2nd shell 7
  25. 25. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONWrite the electronic configuration for the followingelements; 40 23 16a) Ca b) Na c) O 11 8 20 2,8,8,2 2,8,1 2,6 35 28 11d) Cl e) Si f) B 5 17 14 2,8,7 2,8,4 2,3
  26. 26. DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMSWith Dot & Cross diagrams elements and compoundsare represented by Dots or Crosses to show electrons,and circles to show the shells. For example; X NNitrogen X X N X X 14 7 XX
  27. 27. DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMSDraw the Dot & Cross diagrams for the followingelements; 16 35 X a) O b) Cl 17 X X 8 X X X X X X X X Cl X X X X O X X X X X X X X X X
  28. 28. SUMMARY1. The Atomic Number of an atom = number of protons in the nucleus.2. The Atomic Mass of an atom = number of Protons + Neutrons in the nucleus.3. The number of Protons = Number of Electrons.4. Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells.5. Each shell can only carry a set number of electrons.
  29. 29. Introduction to the Periodic Table● Atomic Number ● Symbol ●Atomic Weight ●Element ● Compound ●Mixture
  30. 30. I am Dmitri Mendeleev! I made the PERIODIC TABLE !
  31. 31. Noble Gas Halogen Group PeriodAlkali Earth Metal Alkali Metal
  32. 32. that make up everything in the universe
  33. 33. METALS NONMETALS METALLOID SA substance or mixture An element that does An element having boththat has a characteristic not exhibit the metallic andluster or shine, is characteristics of a nonmetallic properties.generally a good metal; they are They are usually goodconductor of heat & generally solids or gases semiconductorselectricity, & is and are usually hard,malleable & ductile. brittle substances.Except for mercury, the Bromine is the onlymetallic elements are liquid nonmetal.solids at roomtemperature (~20 C)
  34. 34. Which pair of elements isMOST similar?Ca and FNa and ClNe and ArLi and H
  35. 35. What is the smallest particle ofthe element gold (Au) that canstill be classified as gold?atommoleculeneutronproton
  36. 36. All plant and animal life on Earthcontains what element?sulfurcarbonsiliconaluminum
  37. 37. What is the PERIODIC TABLE?o Shows all known elements in the universe.o Organizes the elements by chemical properties.
  38. 38. How do you read thePERIODIC TABLE?
  39. 39. What is the ATOMIC NUMBER? o The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom Or o The number of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom.
  40. 40. Atomic NumberThe number of Protons in an atom. H +111.008Hydrogen
  41. 41. What is the SYMBOL?o An abbreviation of the element name.
  42. 42. What is the ATOMIC WEIGHT? o The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
  43. 43. How do I find the number of protons,electrons, and neutrons in an elementusing the periodic table?o # of PROTONS = ATOMIC NUMBERo # of ELECTRONS = ATOMIC NUMBERo # of NEUTRONS = ATOMIC _ ATOMIC WEIGHT NUMBER
  44. 44. What is an ELEMENT?o A substance composed of a single kind of atom.o Cannot be broken down into another substance by chemical or physical means.
  45. 45. What is a COMPOUND? o A substance in which two or more different elements are CHEMICALLY bonded together.
  46. 46. What is a MIXTURE?o Two or more substances that are mixed together but are NOT chemically bonded.
  47. 47. Element, Compound or Mixture?
  48. 48. Element, Compound or Mixture?
  49. 49. Element, Compound or Mixture?
  50. 50. Element, Compound or Mixture?
  51. 51. Element, Compound or Mixture?
  52. 52. Element, Compound or Mixture?
  53. 53. Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleusMass number (A)=number of protons + number of neutron =atomic number (Z) + number of neutronsIsotopes are atoms of the same element (X) withdifferent numbers of neutrons in the nucleus Mass Number A ZX Element Symbol Atomic Number 1 2 3 1H 1H (D) 1H (T) 235 238 92 U 92 U
  54. 54. Atomic Symbols Show the mass number and atomic number Give the symbol of the element symbol maas number Atomic number
  55. 55. Isotopes are: atoms of the sameelement which have different massnumbers and same atomic no. due todifferent numbers of neutrons in eachnucleus.Most elements exist as a mixture ofisotopes, e.g. chlorine has 2 isotopes 35 37 Cl Cl 17 17
  56. 56. Do You Understand Isotopes?How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in 14 6 C? 6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electronsHow many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in 11 ? 6 C 6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
  57. 57. Isotopes 1H 2H 3H
  58. 58. Isotopes 12C 13C 6 protons 6 protons 6 Neutrons 7 Neutrons
  59. 59. A molecule is an aggregate of two or moreatoms in a definite arrangement held togetherby chemical bonds H2 H2O NH3 CH4A diatomic molecule contains only two atomsA polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms
  60. 60. When an atom lose or gain electron ion areformed. An ion is an atom, or group of atoms,that has a net positive or negative charge.cation – ion with a positive charge If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation. Na 11 protons 11 protons Na+ 11 electrons 10 electronsanion – ion with a negative charge If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion. 17 protons Cl 17 protons Cl- 18 electrons 17 electrons
  61. 61. +Cationan ion with a positive charge.Anion - Aan ion with a Negative charge. I O N
  62. 62. A monatomic ion containsonly one atomA polyatomic ion contains more thanone atom
  63. 63. Do You Understand Ions?How many protons and electrons are in 27 3+ 13 Al ? 13 protons, 10 (13 – 3) electronsHow many protons and electrons are in 78 2- 34 Se ? 34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons
  64. 64. Hydrogen
  65. 65. Hydrogen ion H -1
  66. 66. Lithium
  67. 67. Li Li +12 21 1
  68. 68. Beryllium
  69. 69. Chart of Cat ions- H+ –Hydrogen ion Li +, Na+, k+, Rb+, Cs+ –Alkali metal ion ( Li + -Lithium, Na+ -Sodium, k + -Potassium, Rb+ -Rubidium, Cs+ -Cesium) NH4 + –Ammonium ion Ag+ –Silver ion
  70. 70. Be+2,Mg+2,Ca+2,Sr+2,Ba+2 –Alkalineearth metal ion(Be+2-Beryllium,Mg+2-Magnesium,Ca +2 -Calcium, Sr+2 -StrontiumBa +2 -Barium)Cu+2 –Cupric ionFe +2 –Ferous ionZn+2 –Zinc ion
  71. 71. Fe+3 –Ferric ionAl+3 –Aluminium ionCr +3 –Chromium ionBi+3 –Bismuth ionAu +3 –Auric ionPb+4 –Plumbic ionSi +4 –Silicon ion
  72. 72. Chart of Anions F-1 – Fluoride ion Cl -1 – Chloride ion Br -1 – Bromide ion I -1 – Iodide ion Halide ion
  73. 73. H - –Hydride ion, OH - –HydroxideONO- –Nitrite ion,NO2- –Nitro ionNO3 - –Nitrate ion,CN- –Cyanide ionHCO3- –Bicarbonate ionCH3COO - –Acetate ionMnO4 - –Permagnate ionHSO4- –Bisulphate ionNC - –Isocyanide ionO2- –Superoxide ion
  74. 74. O -2 -Oxide ion, O2-2 -Peroxide ionSO3-2-Sulphite ion,S-2-Sulphide ionCO3 -2 –Carbonate ionSO4-2 –Sulphate ionSiO3-2 –Silicate ionMnO4 -2 –Magnate ionC2O4-2 –Oxalate ionCr2O7 -2 –Dichromate ion
  75. 75. [Fe(CN)6-3]–Ferricyanide ionN -3 –Nitrite ionPO4-3 –Phosphate ionP -3 –Poshpide ionBO4 -3 –Borate ion[Fe(CN)6-4]–Ferrocyanide ionC -4 –Carbide ion
  76. 76. An Acid can be defined as a substance thatyields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved inwater. They are Sour in taste.For example…H2SO4 – Sulphuric acidH2CO3 – Carbonic acidHNO3 – Nitric acidH2PO3 – Phosphoric acidHCl – Hydrochloric acid (H +Cl -)C6H8O7 – Citric acidCH COOH – Acetic acid
  77. 77. Acid
  78. 78. A Base can be defined as a substance thatyields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolvedin water . They are Bitter in taste. + - 2.7
  79. 79. Base
  80. 80. Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions• When an acid reacts with a base to yield water and a salt.• Acid= compounds that produce H+ ions when dissolved in water• Base= compounds that produce OH- ions when dissolved in water.• Neutralization involves H+ and OH- ions and always yields water (H O) and a salt.
  81. 81. pH paperRed Litmus paperBlue Litmus paper
  82. 82. A Salt can be defined as a substance that notyields hydroxide ions (OH-) and hydrogenions (H+) when dissolved in water . They areNeutral or salty in taste. + -
  83. 83. SALT - a Cation and an Anion heldtogether by an ionic bond.
  84. 84. Learning CheckState the number of protons for atoms of each of thefollowing:A. Nitrogen1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protonsB. Sulphur1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protonsC. zirconium1) 40 protons 2) 40.1 protons 3) 39 protons
  85. 85. SolutionState the number of protons for atoms of each of thefollowing:A. Nitrogen 2) 7 protonsB. Sulfur 2) 16 protonsC. zirconium 1) 40 protons
  86. 86. Subatomic Particles in Some Atoms O 16 P 31 Zn 658 15 308 p+ 15 p+ 30 p+8n 16 n 35 n8 e- 15 e- 30 e- LecturePLUS Timberlake 102
  87. 87. Learning Check Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12C, 13C, and 14C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms. 6C12 6C13 6 C14#p _______ _______ _______#n _______ _______ _______#e _______ _______ _______
  88. 88. Solution 6 C12 6 C13 6 C14#p 6 6 6#n 6 7 8#e 6 6 6
  89. 89. Learning CheckAn atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. A. Number of protons in the zinc atom 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65 B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65 C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope with 37 neutrons? 1) 37 2) 65 3) 67
  90. 90. SolutionAn atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. A. Number of protons in the zinc atom 1) 30 B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom 2) 35 C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope with 37 neutrons? 3) 67 LecturePLUS Timberlake 106
  91. 91. Learning CheckWrite the atomic symbols for atoms with thefollowing:A. 8 p+, 8 n, 8 e- ___________B. 17p+, 20n, 17e- ___________C. 47p+, 60 n, 47 e- ___________ LecturePLUS Timberlake 107
  92. 92. SolutionA. 8 p+, 8 n, 8 e- 8O16B. 17p+, 20n, 17e- 17Cl37 107C. 47p+, 60 n, 47 e- 47Ag LecturePLUS Timberlake 108
  93. 93. Biologists follow universally acceptedprinciples to provide scientific names toknown organisms. Each name has twocomponents – the Generic name and thespecific epithet. This system of providing aname with two components is called Binomialnomenclature. This naming system given byCarolus Linnaeus is being practised bybiologists all over the world.
  94. 94. The scientific name of mango is written as Mangiferaindica. Let us see how it is a binomial name. In thisname Mangifera represents the genus while indica, isa particular species, or a specific epithet. Otheruniversal rules of nomenclature are as follows:1. Biological names are generally in Latin and written initalics.They are Latinised or derived fromLatinirrespective of their origin.2. The first word in a biological name represents thegenus while the second component denotes the specificepithet.3. Both the words in a biological name, when handwritten,are separately underlined, or printed in italics to indicatetheir Latin origin.4. The first word denoting the genus starts with a capitalletter while the specific epithet starts with a small letter.It can be illustrated with the example of Mangifera indica.
  95. 95. MatterSince the atom istoo small to be seeneven with the mostpowerfulmicroscopes,scientists rely upon Believe it or not this is a microscope. Even with themodels to help us to world’s best microscopes we cannot clearly see theunderstand the structure or behavior of the atom.atom.
  96. 96. MatterMatter = any materialsubstance with Mass& Volume
  97. 97. Matter comes in 3 phases
  98. 98. SolidDefinite Shape Definite Volume
  99. 99. Solid
  100. 100. LiquidIndefinite Shape –takes the shape ofthe container Definite Volume
  101. 101. Liquid
  102. 102. GasIndefinite Shape –takes the shape ofthe containerIndefinite Volume –can expand and becompressed
  103. 103. Gas
  104. 104. Boiling Condensation FreezingMelting
  105. 105. Plasma “Superheated Gas”When atoms are so hot,they lose ALLof theirelectrons.
  106. 106. Solid Liquid Gas PlasmaMade ofAtomsHoldsits shapeAtoms moveeach other
  107. 107. Cell Structure & Functionhttp://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html
  108. 108. Cell Theory• All living things are made up of cells.• Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.• All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
  109. 109. Definition of CellThe fundamental and structural unit of life.A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  110. 110. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant StemBacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
  111. 111. Two Types of Cells•Prokaryotic•Eukaryotic
  112. 112. Prokaryotic • Do not have structures surrounded by membranes • Few internal structures • One-celled organisms, Bacteriahttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
  113. 113. Eukaryotic • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes • Most living organisms Plant Animalhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
  114. 114. “Typical” Animal Cellhttp://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
  115. 115. “Typical” Plant Cellhttp://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif
  116. 116. A Sense of Scale and Abundance – Bacteria on the Head of a Pin
  117. 117. An Idealized Animal Cell
  118. 118. Conversion Factors and Unit Cancellation
  119. 119. A physical quantity must include: Number + Unit
  120. 120. Calculation Corner: Unit Conversion 1 foot = 12 inches
  121. 121. Calculation Corner: Unit Conversion 1 foot = 12 inches 1 foot = 1 12 inches
  122. 122. Calculation Corner: Unit Conversion 1 foot = 12 inches 1 foot = 1 12 inches 12 inches = 1 1 foot
  123. 123. Calculation Corner: Unit Conversion 1 foot 12 inches 12 inches 1 foot “Conversion factors”
  124. 124. Calculation Corner: Unit Conversion 1 foot 12 inches 12 inches 1 foot “Conversion factors” 12 inches( 3 feet )( 1 foot ) = 36 inches
  125. 125. How many cm are in 1.32 meters?equality: 1 m = 100 cm (or 0.01 m = 1 cm)applicable conversion factors: ______ 1m or 100 cm ______ 100 cm 1m X cm = 1.32 m ( 100 cm ______ 1m ) = 132 cm We use the idea of unit cancellation to decide upon which one of the two conversion factors we choose.
  126. 126. How many meters is 8.72 cm?equality: 1 m = 100 cmapplicable conversion factors: ______ 1m or 100 cm ______ 100 cm 1m X m = 8.72 cm ( 1m ______ 100 cm ) = 0.0872 m Again, the units must cancel.
  127. 127. How many feet is 39.37 inches? equality: 1 ft = 12 in applicable conversion factors: ______ 1 ft or ______ 12 in 12 in 1 ft X ft = 39.37 in ( ) ____ 1 ft 12 in = 3.28 ft Again, the units must cancel.
  128. 128. How many kilometers is 15,000 decimeters?X km = 15,000 dm ( )( 1m ____ 10 dm 1 km ______ 1,000 m ) = 1.5 km
  129. 129. How many seconds is 4.38 days? X s = 4.38 d ( )( 24 h ____ 1d 60 min _____ 1h )( ) 60 s ____ 1 min = 378,432 sIf we are accounting for significantfigures, we would change this to… 3.78 x 105 s
  130. 130. Simple Math withConversion Factors
  131. 131. Example ProblemMeasured dimensions of a rectangle: length (L) = 9.70 cm width (W) = 4.25 cmFind area of rectangle. A=L.W L = (9.70 cm)(4.25 cm) 2. = 41.2 cm cm W
  132. 132. Convert 41.2 cm2 to m2.X m2 = 41.2 cm2 ( 1m ) ______ = 0.412 m2 100 cm WRONG! = 0.412 cm.mRecall that… 41.2 cm2 = 41.2 cm.cmX m2 = 41.2 cm.cm ( 1m ______ 100 cm )( 1m ______ 100 cm ) = 0.00412 m2X m2 = 41.2 cm2 ( 1m ______ 100 cm ) 2 = 0.00412 m2
  133. 133. Convert 41.2 cm2 to mm2.Recall that… 41.2 cm2 = 41.2 cm.cmX mm2 = 41.2 cm.cm (10 mm _____ 1 cm )( 10 mm _____ 1 cm ) = 4,120 mm2 2X mm2 = 41.2 cm2 ( 10 mm _____ 1 cm ) = 4,120 mm2
  134. 134. Measured dimensions of a rectangular solid: Length = 15.2 cm Width = 3.7 cm Height = 8.6 cm HFind volume of solid. W L V=L.W.H = (15.2 cm)(3.7 cm)(8.6 cm) 3 = 480 cm
  135. 135. Convert to m3. cm.cm.cm 2 1m ( X m3 = 480 cm 3 _____ 100 cm )( 1m _____ 100 cm )(1m _____ 100 cm ) = or 3X m3 = 480 cm3 ( 1m _____ 100 cm ) = 0.000480 m3 orX m3 = 480 cm3 ( _________ 1m 1000000 cm 3 ) 3 = 4.80 x 10-4 m3
  136. 136. Convert to m3...Measured dimensions of a rectangular solid:Length = 15.2 cm 0.152 m Width = 3.7 cm 0.037 m Height = 8.6 cm 0.086 m HFind volume of solid. W L V=L.W.H = (0.152 m)(0.037 m)(0.086 m) = 0.000480 m 3
  137. 137. Convert to mm3.
  138. 138. By what factor do mm and cm differ? 10 1 cm = 10 mm By what factor do mm2 and cm2 differ? 100(1 cm)2= 100 mm2 2 1 cm2 = (10 mm) By what factor do mm3 and cm3 differ? 1,000 1 cm3 = (10 mm3(1 cm)3= 1000mm)3
  139. 139. 1 2 3 4nucleus
  140. 140. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION nl Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or Shells the arrangement of the electron in the atom. around the nucleus of an atom. x Sub Main energy no.of electrons level energy level f f = 7 x 2 = 14 1 2 p3 d 4 d p p d = 5 x 2 = 10 s s snucleus s p=3 x2=6 s=1 x2=2 2e- 8e- 32e- Atomic orbital 18e- 1 Atomic orbital = 2 e-
  141. 141. Given the 27 Complete the Element 13 missing data. Location in the Number of atomp+ 1) 4)e- 2) 5)n0 3) 6)
  142. 142. Multiple choice7. The maximum number of electrons that can becontained in an atomic orbital is a. 2 b. 8 c. 68. The particles in an atomic nucleus are collectivelyknown as _______a. Nucleus b. Nucleons c. Nucleolus
  143. 143. 9. There are __ orbitals in the 3rd energy level. a. 10 b. 16 c. 310. The total number of electrons in the 4th energy level a. 36 b. 28 c. 32
  144. 144. Given the 27 Complete theElement 13 missing data. Location in the Number of atom p+ 1) 4) Inside the 13 nucleus e- 2) 13 5) Electron cloud n0 3) 14 6) Inside the nucleus
  145. 145. Multiple choice7. The maximum number of electrons that can becontained in an atomic orbital is a. 2 b. 8 c. 68. The particles in an atomic nucleus are collectivelyknown as _______a. Nucleus b. Nucleons c. Nucleolus
  146. 146. 9. There are a total of __ orbitals in the 3rd energy level. a. 10 b. 16 c. 310. The total number of electrons in the 4th energy level a. 36 b. 28 c. 32

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