Water purifier a study of raipur city”


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Water purifier a study of raipur city”

  2. 2. DECLARATION I here by declare that research report entitled “PEOPLEPERCEPTION TOWARDS WATER PURIFIER” is a genuinework done by me and all information collected is authentic to thebest of my knowledge and is result of my own research work andthe same has not been previously presented in this University.PLACE: Raipur NAME:-DATE: SANJEEVANI SHESH MBA-2ND SEM SECTION ‘C’ 2
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTDuring the course of my project, there are several people who have directlyor indirectly co-operated and guided me whenever and where ever it wasnecessary and shared our hardship. Without there help this project would nothave come in to existence.I would like to take this opportunity to thank form the depth of my heart,each and everyone .I acknowledge my sincere gratitude to Prof Jay Kumar Dewangan facultyof DIMAT Raipur who guided me to conduct this study. I would also liketo thank him for his valuable guidance, cooperation and support at each andevery stage of this research project.My heartiest gratitude to all my Teachers for helping me, and developingmy skills by encouraging me all the time for study and project work.I thank all my respondents, and my friends who were kind enough to providenecessary data required for the study. I also thanks my parents who helpedfor successfully completion of this project.Place: RaipurDate: 3
  4. 4. PREFACE Today the business environment is rapidly changing in thiscompetitive environment the popular trend is also striving formaintaining its positions therefore it become essential for thecompanies that they should know about their preference & taste.Regarding a particular product it is of almost necessary to knowthe level of customers satisfaction to the value offered by thecompany in case of dissatisfactory result it is essential to as certainwhether the dissatisfaction is for entire product or part of it is andwhat value do the customers expect from it?The research will provide the relevant information to theorganization about people perception towards branded waterpurifiers.The research work is sincere effort to find out the ultimaterequirement of customer for the betterment of research as well asthe organization. TABLE OF CONTENTS 4
  5. 5.  CERTIFICATE I  DECLARATION II  ACKNOWLEGDEMENT III  PREFACE IVCHAPTER (I) Introduction 1 1.1What is Water Purifiers? 2 1.2Consumer’s Behavior 2 1.3Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior 3 1.3.1Social And Cultural Influence 4 1.3.2Specific Social Influence 4CHAPTER (II) Research Methodology 11 2.1Review of Related Literature 13 2.2Statement of the Problem 13 2.3Purpose of the Study 13 2.4Objectives 14 2.5Universe 14 2.6Sample 15 2.7Sampling Method 15 2.8Data Collection 16 2.9Questionnaire 16 2.10Statistical Technique 16 2.11Delimitation 17CHAPTER (III) Analysis and Interpretation of Data 18CHAPTER (IV) Findings and Limitations 32 SUGGESTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 5
  7. 7. 1.1 WATER PURIFIERSAccording to Indian mythology, human body is made up of air,water, fire, earth and sky. But, the thing on which the human beingis most dependent, after air is water.Water is that essential element in the absence of which existence oflife is not possible. Although 78% of earth is occupied with waterbut the amount fit for consumption is very little.In today’s world of globalization and industrialization, thepollution of water is a very dangerous aspect haunting themankind. So, after many years of scientific research, manyinstitutions came with an innovation called water purifiers.Water purifier’s usage is rapidly increasing in big cities, towns,educational institutions, hospitals, heavy industries etc.So, to conduct a research on the usage and effect of branded waterpurifiers is inevitable, as frequent assessment is a much-neededthing for more innovations and inventions. 7
  8. 8. 1.2 CUSTOMER BEHAVIOURBehaviour is a mirror in which every one shows his or her image.Behaviour is a process of responding to stimuli. Consumerbehaviour is to do with the activities of individuals in obtainingand using the goods and services. It encompasses the decisionmaking process that precedes and determines purchases. In thewords Prof. C.G. Walter and Prof. G.W. Paul it is “The processwhere by individuals decide whether, what, when, where, how andfrom whom to purchase goods and services”.Consumer or Customer behavior is all the psychological, socialand physical behavior of potential customers as they become awareof evaluate, purchase, consume and tell others the products orservices.CUSTOMER SATISFACTIONThe liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has takenplace almost a decade ago, the focus point in any organization is“Customer satisfaction”. The phase such as “Customer is king inour business”, “service to customer is service to god” are no morea myth but turned out to be a reality. Customer satisfaction is thebase of any business expansion because of the stiff competitionprevalent in the market. 8
  9. 9. Whether the buyer is satisfied after the purchase depends on theoffer’s performance in relation to the buyer’s expectation. Ingeneral; satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure ordisappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceivedperformance ( or outcome) in relation to his or her expectation.As this definition makes clear, satisfaction is a function ofperceived performance and expectation. If the performance fallsshort of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If theperformance matches the expectations the customer is satisfied. IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER MOTIVE “Management is the specific and distinguishing organ of anyand all organization. There is or there must be one rightorganization. The organization that fits the task is to lead peopleand the goal is to make productive the specific strength andknowledge of each individual”. - Peter Drucker. The process of mobile liberalization bought the issue ofcustomer focus to the fore front towards getting closer to thecustomer in the identified market segment with well defined 9
  10. 10. characteristics, operators are establishing strategic business units.We are able to witness attempts by public as well as private sector. Now a day there is a need for customer focus. The customerchoice and awareness has been increasing tremendously during thisdecade. The development of information technology and mediarevolution, besides hectic competition for services provided byoperators, as market became increasingly competitive customerscan now immediately go else where if they don’t get what theywant. Continuous improvement gaining the competitive edgeincreased market share, higher profits none of these things ispossible unless business can find new ways of maintaining theloyalty of existing customers. Customer focus is the ability toprovide predictably positive experiences that consistently meet orexceed the customer’s expectation. Customer focus should bemanaged by “moments of truth”. A “moment of truth” refers to any episode or any incidentwhen a customer comes into contact with any aspects of theservice offered and on the basis of the contact forms an opinionabout quality of the service and the quality if the product offered. Customer behavior can be formally defined as; the acts ofindividuals directly involved in obtaining and using economicgoods and services including the decision processes that precede 10
  11. 11. and determine these acts. The underlying concepts of this chapterfrom a system in which the individual is the core, surrounded by animmediate and wider environment that influences his or her goals.These goals ultimately satisfied by passing through a number ofproblem solving stages leading to purchase decisions. The studyand practice of marketing draws on a great many sources thatcontribute theory, information, inspiration and advice.1.3 FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 1.3.1 Social and Cultural InfluencesCulture is learned behavior that has been passed down over time,reinforced in our daily lives through the family unit and througheducation and religious institutions. Culture influences, therefore,are powerful ones and if the company does not understands theculture in which the particular market operates it can not hope todevelop products and market them successfully.It is important to recognize that culture although immenselypowerful is not fixed forever. Change in culture tends to be slowand not fully assimilated until a generation or more has passed. 11
  12. 12. 1.3.2. Specific social influences  Social classThis is the most prominent social influence. Traditionally, one ofthe chief determinants of social class was income. Since paystructures have altered a great deal in terms of the lower C2, D,and E categories moving more towards levels previously enjoyedby higher A, B and C1 categories over the past 30 years or so,classification of consumers on the basis of lifestyle is becomingmore meaning today.  Reference groupsThis can be described as group of people whose standards ofconducts of mould an individual’s dispositions, beliefs and values.This group can be small or large. Reference groups can range fromthe immediate family to the place of work. They can also be foundin a person’s social life. An individual is unlikely to deviate too farfrom the behavioral norms led down by the members of a club orhobby group. Reference group, but it does state that individualismcannot exist within a group, but it does suggest that even rigid 12
  13. 13. independent thinkers will at least be aware of what is considered‘normal’ within a group.  MotivationMarketers are interested in motivation when it relates topurchasing behaviour. This behaviour relates to the motive forwishing to posses the goods or services in question, and it has beentermed ‘goal-related behaviour’. It can, therefore, be seen that anumber of motives might be at play when making a purchaserdecision – some motives stronger than others – and the finaldecision might be a compromise solution.  PerceptionUnlike motivation that requires a reaction to a stimulus, perceptionrelates to the meaning that is assigned to that stimulus as marketersare interested in how buyers perceive and react to products inrelation to such matters as quality, aesthetics, price and image,since products not only exist in partial terms but also how they areperceived by consumers in relation need satisfaction. Thisperception by buyers is affected by the nature of the product itself, 13
  14. 14. by the circumstances of the individual buyer and by the buyersinnate situation in terms of how ready they are to make thepurchase in terms of needing it at a particular point of time .  AttitudeOur strongest basic attitudes are implanted in our formative yearsand these come largely from the influence of our close familygroup and other social interaction. More refined attitude developslater. In marketing terms, the sum total of our attitudes can beregarded as a set of cognitions that a potential buyer has in relationto a potential purchase or purchasing environment. This is whycertain stores or companies go out of their way to engenderfavorable attitude and it is why manufacturer seek to induce loyaltytowards their particular brand or product.  LearningIn the context of marketing, learning is a result of informationreceived through advertising or other publicity or through somereference group or other. In order to have an effect on motives orattitudes, marketing effort should associate the product withpositive drives and reinforcing messages. 14
  16. 16. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to solve systematically theresearch problem. In it, the researcher studies the various steps thatare generally adopted in studying research problem along with thelogic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to design hismethodology for his problem as the same may differ from problemto problem. Thus, when a researcher talks of researchmethodology; he not only talks the of research methods but alsoconsiders the logic behind the methods he uses in the context of hisresearch study and explains why he is using a particular method ortechnique and why he is not using others so that research resultsare capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself orby others. The research methodology adopted in this project is asfollows:- 1. Defining the research objectives. 2. Preparing the research designing. 3. Implementation of research design. 4. Data collection. 5. Preliminary data. 16
  17. 17. 2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITRATURE Review of related literature means researcher shouldundertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem.For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals andpublished or unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to.Academic journals, conference proceeding, government reportsbooks etc. must be tapped depending on the nature of the problem.In this process, it should be remembered that one source will leadto another. The earlier studies, if any, which are similar to thestudy in hand, should be carefully studied. A good library will be agreat help to the researcher at this stage. Humans have been storing and distributing water forcenturies. Before, when people lived as hunters/ collectors, riverwater was applied for drinking water purposes. When peoplepermanently stayed in one place for a long period of time, this wasusually near a river or lake. When there were no rivers or lakes inan area, people used groundwater for drinking water purposes.This was pumped up through wells.When the human population started growing extensively, the watersupply was no longer sufficient. Drinking water needed to beextracted from a different source. 17
  18. 18. About 7000 years ago, Jericho (Israël, figure 1) stored water inwells that were used as sources. People also started to developdrinking water transport systems. The transport took place throughsimple channels, dug in the sand or in rocks. Later on one alsostarted using hollow tubes. Egypt used hollow palm trees andChina and Japan used bamboo strunks. Eventually one startedusing clay, wood and even metal.In Perzia people searched for underground rivers and lakes. Thewater went through holes in rocks into the wells on the plains.Around 3000 B.C., the city of Mohenjo-Daro (Pakistan) used avery extensive water supply. In this city there were public bathingfacilities with water boiler installations and bathrooms.In ancient Greece spring water, well water, and rainwater wereused very early on. Because of a fast increase in urban population,Greece was forced to store water in wells and transport it to thepeople through a distribution network. The water that was usedwas carried away through sewers, along with the rainwater. Whenvalleys were reached, the water was lead through hills underpressure. The Greek where among the first to gain an interest inwater quality. They used aeration basins for water purification.In 1827, the Englishman James Simpson built a sand filter fordrinking water purification. Today, we still call this the numberone tribute to public health. 18
  19. 19. 2.2 – STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM“Perception of people towards Water Purifier- a Study of RaipurCity”2.3-PURPOSE OF THE STUDYTo Study the Perception of people towards Water Purifier in thecity of Raipur2.4 - OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY i. To find out the awareness regarding water purifier among the people ii. To find out the most important source through which people came to know about the water purifier. iii. To find out the most preferred of water purifier in Raipur city.2.5 UNIVERSE. Population refers to the total of items about whichinformation is desired. The attribute that are the object of study arereferred to as characteristics and the units possessing them arecalled as elementary units. The aggregate of such units is generally 19
  20. 20. described as population. Thus, all the units in any field of inquiryconstitute universe and all elementary units constitute population.The population can be finite and in finite. The population is said tobe finite if it consists of a fixed number of elements so that it ispossible to enumerate it in its totality. An infinite population is onein which it is theoretically impossible to observe all the elements.The population is specific group of people, firms, conditions;activities etc. which forms the pivot of research for developing andusing a sample. It becomes primary duty of a researcher to definethe population from which he draws the sample. Population – To achieve this objective, the city of Raipurwas selected.2.6 SAMPLE.The sample is the representative unit of population. The researcherhas taken the consumer as sample for this research. Since in thisresearch the researcher has collected the sample according to hisown convenience, so the sample is convenient sample (i.e. nonprobability sampling) and the sample size of the research is Size of Sample This refers to number of items to be selected from theuniverse to constitute a sample. The size of the sample shouldneither be excessively large, nor too small. It should be optimum. 20
  21. 21. An optimum sample size is one which fulfills the requirements ofefficiency, representative ness, reliability, and flexibility.2.7 SAMPLING METHOD. Convenient Sampling Method was adopted by the researcher.In this method the sample units are chosen primarily on the basisof convenience to the investigator. In this type of sampling, itemsfor the sample are selected deliberately by the researcher; hischoice concerning the items remains supreme. In other words,under this sampling, the organizers of the inquiry purposely choosethe particular unit of the universe for constituting a sample on thebasis that the small mass that they so select out of a huge one willbe typical or representative of the whole.2.8 DATA COLLECTION. The task of data collection begins after a research problemhas been defined. Researcher should keep in mind two types ofdata, primary data and secondary data. The primary data are thosewhich are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen tobe original in character. The secondary data, on the other hand, arethose which have already been collected by someone else andwhich have already been passed through the statistical process.Both primary data and secondary data were used inaccomplishment of objective of the research. 21
  22. 22. 2.9 QUESTIONNAIRE. The term questionnaire refers to a self-administered processwhereby the respondent himself/herself reads the questions andrecords his/her answers without assistance of an interviewer.Although the instrument is essentially question asking and datagathering tool. A questionnaire is more structured andstandardized. The questionnaire consists of a number of questionsprinted or typed in a definite order on a form or a set of forms. Thismethod of data collection is quite popular in case of big enquiries.2.10 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE.Statistical Method & Technique of Central Tendency was used bythe researcher in the analysis of the data in his research.Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used inmaking comparisons between two or more series of data.Percentages are used to describe relationships. Percentages canalso be used to compare the relative terms, the distribution of twoor more series of data.Measures of Central Tendency tell us the point about which itemshave a tendency to cluster. Such a measure is considered as themost representative figure for the entire mass of data. Measure ofCentral Tendency is also known as ‘Statistical Average’. 22
  23. 23. 2.11 DELIMITATION There is some specific delimitation in the study. They are:- 1. The generalization of data is subjective to the population of Raipur city. 2. The generalization of finding is subject to the accuracy of data provided by the respondents 3. Close ended questions used in the questionnaire were answered comfortably by the respondents. 23
  24. 24. CHAPTER – 3 DATA ANALYSIS 24
  25. 25. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 1. GENDER GENDER NO. OF PERCENTAG RESPONDENTS E MALE 46 46% FEMALE 54 54% 46% MALE 54% FEMALEInterpretation:-Majority of the respondent’s i.e., 54% are females. 25
  27. 27. 33% EMPLOYED UN EMPLOYED 67%Interpretation:- Majority of the respondent’s i.e. 67 % are employed which depictsthe income level. 3. NATURE OF FAMILYNATURE OF NO. OF PERCENTAGFAMILY RESPONDENTS ENUCLEAR 84 84%FAMILY JOINT FAMILY 16 16% 16% NUCLEAR JOINT 84%Interpretation:-Majority of the respondents i.e., 84% have nuclear family. 27
  28. 28. 4. Awareness of the people about the water purifiers.Awareness No. Of Percentage respondentsYes 92 92%No 8 8% 8% yes no 92%Interpretation:- Majority of the respondent’s i.e., 92% are aware about the Waterpurifiers. 28
  29. 29. 5. Awareness People of about the different varieties of waterpurifiers.Awareness about No. Of Percentagevarieties respondents Two 66 66% Four 23 23% More than four 2 2% Don’t know 9 9% Awareness about different varieties 9% 2% two 23% four more than two 66% don’t knowInterpretation: - Majority of the respondents i.e. 66% are awareof two brands of water Purifiers.6. Perception of people about the price of the water purifiers 29
  30. 30. 17% 38% EXCESSIVE REASONABLE DIFFICULT TO SAY 45%Interpretation:-Majority of the respondents i.e. 45% feel that the priceIs reasonable7. Most preferred water purifierMOST NO. OF PERCENTAGEPREFERRED RESPONDENTBRANDAQUA 42 65%GUARDZEROB 11 17%OTHERS 12 18%TOTAL 65 100% 30
  31. 31. brand prefred 70 60 no. of 50 responden 40 30 prefered brand t 20 10 no. of respondent 0 aquaguard zeroB others brands Interpretation:-Majority of the respondents i.e. 65% prefer aquaGuard water purifier. 31
  32. 32. CHAPTER – 4 CONCLUSION 32
  33. 33. Findings  The female respondents as per the data collected is 54% who prefer water purifiers for safe drinking water in order to protect their family from diseases.  The employed percentage i.e. 67% is more compared to unemployed, which shows the income level and the high usage of purifiers.  Nuclear families use water purifiers the most as compared to joint families. Joint families use traditional way of water purification i.e. boiling the water. But nuclear families are more time conscious thus use water purifiers.  Awareness of people towards safe and pure drinking water is 92% .so this shows the work of media which has created an environment for safe drinking water.  As per this study Aqua guard, Eureka Forbes, aqua fresh, Zero B, Kent, Wipro, are the preferred purifiers. Amoung these aqua guard is most preferred by 65%  As per the study water purifiers gain more importance after 1995, when the economic development took place and people grew more conscious about the health. 33
  34. 34.  Preference of people towards branded purifier is more but many a times due to cost or high price of brands, the usage of purifiers are neglected.  Age group from 15-45 yrs has responded in the same manner, as per their response pure, safe water is necessary for children as well as for adults.LIMITATIONS  Limitation of time 34
  35. 35. I have completed the research in time inspite of all the difficulties,if the time is short ,it is quite possible that one cannot collectsufficient data and have to depend upon the secondary data whosereliability is some time doubtful.  Limitation of consumers’ behaviorVery often consumers do not express their true feelings. In suchcases their habits preference practice cannot be assessed correctly.  Limitation of economic conditionsEarnings of customers in Raipur is comparatively low, people donot prefer use of branded purifiers and thus to search for users wasa very difficult task.SUGGESTIONS 35
  36. 36.  There are still efforts needed to make people aware about the water purifier.  More varieties of water purifier should be introduced in the city so that the people may get a chance of option to choose.  Water Purifiers Companies must provide after sale service to their customers.  Companies shall introduce or increase the range of their product in respect of price so that a lower middle class people may also afford to have water purifier.  There should be a temperature control device in the purifiers.  Media must attempt to make rural areas aware about the water purification.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Kotler Philip, Marketing Management , edition 11th 36
  37. 37. 2. Kothari C.R , Research Methodology , edition 20053. www.eurekaforbes.com Appendix 37
  38. 38. QuestionnaireDear Sir/Madam, I am conducting a survey entitled “Perception of Peopletowards Water Purifiers – A Study of Raipur City” which is a part of myacademic curriculum. I need your help in this study. Kindly provide me yourvaluable opinion by filling this questionnaire. The information obtained bythis questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential and will be used foracademic purpose. Sanjeevani Shesh MBA-2nd Sem. Disha Institute Of Management and technology Raipur (C.G)PART-A 1. Age o 15-25 o 25-35 o 35-45 o 45& above 2. Gender: Male [ ] Female [ ] 3.Marital Status: Married [ ] Unmarried [ ] 4. Educational Qualification: i. HSC [ ] ii. Graduate [ ] iii. Post Graduate [ ] iv. Others (Specify)_____________. 5. Employment Status: i. Employed [ ] ii. Unemployed [ ] 6. Monthly Income:______________________________7. Nature Of Family: i. Joint Family [ ] ii. Nuclear Family [ ] 38
  39. 39. PART-B 1. Are you aware about Water Purifier? Yes [ ] No [ ] 2. About how many of water purifiers do you know?(Please Tick) i. Two ii. Four iii. More than four iv. Don’t Know 3. Do you use water purifier? Yes [ ] No [ ] 4. Which brand of water purifier do you have in your home? Specify______________________________________ 5. Which year did you purifier o 1950-1965 o 1965-1980 o 1980-1985 o 1995 till today 6. How did you get your water purifier? i. By Cash [ ] ii On EMI [ ] iii. By Gift [ ] iv Any other way [ ] 7. What do you feel about the price of the product? i. Excessive [ ] ii. Reasonable [ ] iii. Difficult to say [ ] 8. What is the performance of your product? i. Excellent [ ] ii. Good [ ] iii. Satisfactory [ ] iv. Poor [ ] 9. Would you suggest others to purchase the brand of water purifier which you have purchased? Yes [ ] No [ ] 10.What features do you think should be added for further improvement in the water purifiers? …………………………………………………………………… THANK YOU A 39
  41. 41. I here by declare that research report entitled “PEOPLEPERCEPTION TOWARDS WATER PURIFIER” is a genuinework done by me and all information collected is authentic to thebest of my knowledge and is result of my own research work andthe same has not been previously presented in this University.PLACE: Raipur NAMEDATE: Seema Samaddar MBA-2ND SEM SECTION ‘C’ A 41
  43. 43. I here by declare that research report entitled “PEOPLEPERCEPTION TOWARDS WATER PURIFIER” is a genuinework done by me and all information collected is authentic to thebest of my knowledge and is result of my own research work andthe same has not been previously presented in this University.PLACE: Raipur NAMEDATE: Shraddha Shrivastava MBA-2ND SEM SECTION ‘C’ 43