Accelerometer controlled robot

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Accelerometer controlled robot

  1. 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 1 “ACCELEROMETER CONTROLLED ROBOT” SUBMITTED BY: Mr.Abhishek kuumar choudhary Mr. Mohit keshav Mr. Nitesh singh bisht Mr. Rohit khanna Mr. Siddique akbar SUPERVISOR: Dr. ATUL SIDOLA Via Prem Nagar P.O Bodholi Dehradun -248007 Uttrakhand
  2. 2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 2 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that, Mr. Abhishek kumar choudhary Mr. Mohit keshav Mr. Nitesh singh bisht Mr. siddique akbar Mr. Rohit khanna Students of UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENERGY STUDIES have done a Project “ACCELEROMETER CONTROLLED ROBOT” under my guidance. This work is done to my satisfy action under requirement of PRE FINAL YEAR PROJECT for academic year 2012 -2013.
  3. 3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We have a great pleasure in presenting this project report on “ACCELEROMETER CONTROLLED ROBOT” and to express our deep regard to towards those who have offered their valuable time & guidance in my hour of need. Firstly we express our sincere gratitude to Mentor, the guide of the project who carefully and patiently leant his valuable time and effort to give directions as well as to correct various documents with attention and care. It is a great honor to do this project in this esteemed institution, and we would extend our thanks to Dr. ATUL SIDOLA, member of Mechanical Dept., who have shared their vast knowledge and experience during our stay. We do also like to appreciate the consideration of the Project Coordinator, our Faculties and colleagues, which enabled us to balance our work along with this project. It was their attitude that inspired us to do such an efficient and apposite work. We wish to avail this opportunity to express a sense of gratitude and love to all our friends and our family for their unwavering support, strength, help and in short for everything they have done during the crucial times of the progress of our project.
  4. 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 4 ABSTRACT Now a day, Robots are controlled by remote or cell phone or keyboard etc. If we think about cost and required hardware’s all this things increases the complexity, especially for low level application. Now the robot that we have designed is different from above one. It doesn’t require any type of type of complex keys or joysticks. It is a robot which is controlled by accelerometer, which drives itself according to position of accelerometer. Hardware required is very small, and hence low cost and small in size.
  5. 5. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Certificate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………2 Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………..3 Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………4 Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….6 Chapter-1: Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...8 Chapter-2: Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..11 Chapter-3: Problem Definition………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28 Chapter-4: Model Construction and Solution………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29 Chapter-5: Program used……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...30 Chapter-6: Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….37 Chapter-6: Conclusions and Recommendations for future work……………………………………………………………………………39 References Appendices Appendix-A…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….41
  6. 6. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 6 INTRODUCTION We generally find people working in chemical industries under different hazardous condition. These people suffer with many dangerous diseases like skin cancer, lungs problem and many more. So we finally thought of designing a robot that can copy that instant action of human being under various conditions and situations. In market many types of robots are available that are controlled by remote or cell phone or keyboard connection. But limitations of these robots are that they are much more complex and difficult for a new comer to learn. More over their cost are high even for low application activities. So we decided to design a robot that doesn’t require any type of remote or joystick. It should be controlled by the accelerometer which will be driving itself according to position of it. Hardware required is very small, and hence low cost and small in size This robot consists of mainly three parts. First is sensor, which works as vision of robot. We have used accelerometer that act as sensor for our robot. A Gesture Controlled robot is a kind of robot which can be controlled by your hand gestures not by old buttons. You just need to wear a small transmitting device in your hand which included an acceleration meter. This will transmit an appropriate command to the robot so that it can do whatever we want. The transmitting device included a comparator IC for analog to digital conversion and an encoder IC(HT12E) which is use to encode the four bit data and then it will transmit by an RF Transmitter module. At the receiving end RF Receiver modules receives the encoded data and decode it by a decoder IC (HT12D). This data is then processed by a microcontroller (P89V51RD2) and finally our motor driver to control the motors. As user makes movements of his hand in front of it, it senses and according to that it sends the signal for decision. Output from accelerometer is gathered for process by microcontroller.
  7. 7. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 7 As per sensor output, the controller is made to work according to the program written inside it and it sends the respective signal to third part which is motors. This is the last part which drives the wheel of our Robot. It uses two dc motors to make movement. To drive them one motor driver is IC used which provides sufficient current to motors. All this material is mounted on metal chassis. As we move our hand to right robot will move to right side. Similar to this it will copy all our movements.
  8. 8. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 8 LITERARURE REVIEW 1) Accelerometer ADXL335 Small, Low Power, 3-Axis ±3 g Accelerometer What is an accelerometer? An accelerometer is an electromechanical device that will measure acceleration forces. These forces may be static, like the constant force of gravity pulling at your feet, or they could be dynamic - caused by moving or vibrating the accelerometer. What are accelerometers useful for? By measuring the amount of static acceleration due to gravity, you can find out the angle the device is tilted at with respect to the earth. By sensing the amount of dynamic acceleration, you can analyze the way the device is moving. At first, measuring tilt and acceleration doesn't seem all that exciting. However, engineers have come up with many ways to make really useful products with them. An accelerometer can help your project understand its surroundings better. Is it driving uphill? Is it going to fall over when it takes another step? Is it flying horizontally or is it dive bombing your professor? A good programmer can write code to answer all of these questions using the data provided by an accelerometer.
  9. 9. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 9 How do accelerometers work? There are many different ways to make an accelerometer! Some accelerometers use the piezoelectric effect - they contain microscopic crystal structures that get stressed by accelerative forces, which cause a voltage to be generated. Another way to do it is by sensing changes in capacitance. If you have two microstructures next to each other, they have a certain capacitance between them. If an accelerative force moves one of the structures, then the capacitance will change. Add some circuitry to convert from capacitance to voltage, and you will get an accelerometer. There are even more methods, including use of the piezoresistive effect, hot air bubbles, and light Types of Accelerometer There are several different principles upon which an analog accelerometer can be built. Two very common types utilize capacitive sensing and the piezoelectric effect to sense the displacement of the proof mass proportional to the applied acceleration. Capacitive Accelerometers that implement capacitive sensing output a voltage dependent on the distance between two planar surfaces. One or both of these “plates” are charged with an electrical current. Changing the gap between the plates changes the electrical capacity of the system, which can be measured as a voltage output. This method of sensing is known for its high accuracy and stability. Capacitive accelerometers are also less prone to noise and variation with temperature, typically dissipates less power, and can have larger bandwidths due to internal feedback circuitry. (Elwenspoek 1993) Piezoelectric Piezoelectric sensing of acceleration is natural, as acceleration is directly proportional to force. When certain types of crystal are compressed, charges of opposite polarity accumulate on opposite sides of the crystal. This is known as the piezoelectric effect. In a piezoelectric accelerometer, charge accumulates on the crystal and is translated and amplified into either an output current or voltage.
  10. 10. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 10 Piezoelectric accelerometers only respond to AC phenomenon such as vibration or shock. They have a wide dynamic range, but can be expensive depending on their quality (Doscher 2005) Piezo-film based accelerometers are best used to measure AC phenomenon such as vibration or shock, rather than DC phenomenon such as the acceleration of gravity. They are inexpensive, and respond to other phenomenon such as temperature, sound, and pressure (Doscher 2005) Other There are many other types of accelerometer that are less important to musical applications, including: Piezoresistive Thermal Null-balance Servo force balance Strain gauge Resonance Magnetic induction Optical Surface acoustic wave (SAW)
  11. 11. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 11 Specifications A typical accelerometer has the following basic specifications: Analog/digital Number of axes Output range (maximum swing) Sensitivity (voltage output per g) Bandwidth Amplitude stability The user selects the bandwidth of the accelerometer using the C X, CY, and CZ capacitors at the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins. Bandwidths can be selected to suit the application, with a range of 0.5 Hz to 1600 Hz for the X and Y axes, and a range of 0.5 Hz to 550 Hz for the Z axis.
  12. 12. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 12 ADXL335 Figure -1 Accelerometer ADXL335 An Accelerometer is a kind of sensor which gives an analog data while moving in X,Y,Z direction or may be X,Y direction only depends on the type of the sensor. Here is a small image of an Accelerometer shown. We can see in the image that there are some arrows showing if we tilt these sensors in that direction then the data at that corresponding pin will change in the analog form
  13. 13. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 13 The Accelerometer having 6 pins- 1- VDD- We will give the +5volt to this pin 2- GND- We simply connects this pin to the ground for biasing. 3- X- On this pin we will receive the analog data for x direction movement. 4- Y- On this pin we will receive the analog data for y direction movement. 5- Z- On this pin we will receive the analog data for z direction movement. 6- ST- this pin is use to set the sensitivity of the accelerometer 1.5g/2g/3g/4g.
  14. 14. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 14 THEORY OF OPERATION The ADXL335 is a complete 3-axis acceleration measurement system. The ADXL335 has a measurement range of ±3 g minimum. It contains poly-silicon surface micro machined sensor and signal conditioning circuitry to implement open-loop acceleration measurement architecture. The output signals are analog Voltages that are proportional to acceleration. The accelerometer can measure the static acceleration of gravity in tilt-sensing applications as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration. The sensor is a poly-silicon surface-micro machined structure built on top of a silicon wafer. Poly-silicon springs suspend the structure over the surface of the wafer and provide a resistance against acceleration forces. Deflection of the structure is measured using a differential capacitor that consists of independent fixed plates and plates attached to the moving mass. If you have two microstructures next to each other, they have a certain capacitance between them. If an accelerative force moves one of the structures, then the capacitance will change. Add some circuitry to convert from capacitance to voltage, and you will get an accelerometer. There are even more methods, including use of the piezoresistive effect, hot air bubbles, and light. The fixed plates are driven By 180° out-of-phase square waves. Acceleration deflects the moving mass and unbalances the differential capacitor resulting in a sensor output whose amplitude is proportional to acceleration. Phase-sensitive demodulation techniques are then used to determine the magnitude and direction of the acceleration.
  15. 15. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 15 FEATURES: 3 axis sensing small, low profile package 4mm x 4mm x 1.45mm LFCSP low power: 350uA (typical) Single operation: 1.8v to 3.6v 10,000g shock survival Excellent temperature stability BW adjustment with a single capacitor per axis RoHS/WEEE lead-free complement ACCELEROMETER ADXL 335 Figure -2 Pin dia. Of ADXL 335
  16. 16. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 16 Pin Function Descriptions Pin No. Mnemonic Description 1 NC No Connect.1 2 ST Self-Test. 3 COM Common. 4 NC No Connect.1 5 COM Common. 6 COM Common. 7 COM Common. 8 ZOUT Z Channel Output. 9 NC No Connect.1 10 YOUT Y Channel Output. 11 NC No Connect. 1 12 XOUT X Channel Output. 13 NC No Connect. 1 14 VS Supply Voltage (1.8 V to 3.6 V). 15 VS Supply Voltage (1.8 V to 3.6 V). 16 NC No Connect. 1 EP Exposed Pad Not internally connected. Solder for Mechanical integrity.
  17. 17. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 17 MICROCONTROLLER (ATMEGA 16) Pin Diagram: FIGURE -3 AVR AT mega16
  18. 18. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 18 FEATURES • High-performance, Low-power Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture – 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier • High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments – 16 Kbytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory – 512 Bytes EEPROM – 1 Kbyte Internal SRAM – Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM – Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C (1) – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits In- System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation – Programming Lock for Software Security • JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface – Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard – Extensive On-chip Debug Support – Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
  19. 19. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 19 • Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator – Four PWM Channels – 8-channel, 10-bit ADC 8 Single-ended Channels 7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only 2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x, 10 xs, or 200 xs – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator • Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby
  20. 20. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 20 • I/O and Packages – 32 Programmable I/O Lines – 40-pin PDIP, 44-lead TQFP, and 44-pad QFN/MLF • Operating Voltages • – 2.7V - 5.5V for ATmega16L – 4.5V - 5.5V for ATmega16 • Speed Grades – 0 - 8 MHz for ATmega16L – 0 - 16 MHz for ATmega16 • Power Consumption @ 1 MHz, 3V, and 25°C for ATmega16L – Active: 1.1 mA – Idle Mode: 0.35 mA – Power-down Mode: < 1 µA
  21. 21. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 21 2x16 LCD DISPLAY Figure – 4 A typical LCD FEATURES: 61 x 15.8 mm viewing area 5 x 7 dot matrix format for 2.96 x 5.56 mm character, plus cursor line can display 224 different symbols Low power consumption (1 mA typical) Powerful command set and user produced characters TTL and CMOS compiler Connector for standard 0.1-pitch pin headers 5 x 8 dots with cursor Built-in controller (KS 0066 or Equivalent)
  22. 22. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 22 Description This is an LCD Display designed for E-blocks. It is a 16 character, 2-line alphanumeric LCD Display Connected to a single 9-way D-type connector. This allows the device to be connected to most E-Block I/O ports. The LCD display requires data in a serial format, which is detailed in the user guide below. The display also requires a 5V power supply. Please take care not to exceed 5V, as this will cause damage to the device. The 5V is best generated from the E-blocks Multiprogrammer or a 5V fixed regulated power supply. The potentiometer RV1 is a contrast control that should be used to adjust the contrast of the display for the environment it is being used in.
  23. 23. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 23 MOTOR DRIVER IC L293D L293D MOTOR DRIVER IC FIGURE – 5 Motor Driver L293D
  24. 24. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 24 FEATURES -Output current 1A per channel (600 mA for L293D). -Peak output current 2A per channel ( 1.2A for L293D). -Inhibit facility. -High noise immunity. -Separate logic supply. -Over temperature protection DESCRIPTION: L293D is a dual H‐Bridge motor driver, so with one IC we can interface two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and counter clockwise direction and if you have motor with fix direction of motion. You can make use of all the four I/Os to connect up to four DC motors. L293D has output current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per channel. Moreover for protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are included within the IC. The output supply (VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V, which has made L293D a best choice for DC motor driver. Each channel is controlled by a TTL compatible logic input and each pair of driver is equipped with an inhibit input which turns off all four transistor. A separate supply voltage is provided for logic so that it may be run off a lower voltage to reduce dissipation. Additionally the L293D includes the output clamping diodes within the IC for complete interfacing with inductive loads.
  25. 25. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 25 Battery We use 9 volt 3 amp battery A battery is a device that converts stored chemical energy to electrical energy. Batteries are commonly used as energy sources in many household and industrial applications. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used in hearing aids and wristwatches to room-size battery banks that serve as backup power supplies in telephone exchanges and computer data centers.
  26. 26. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 26 SOFTWARE SOFTWARE USED: 1) AVR STUDIO It is most commonly used compiler software. It allows to do programming in c and compiling as well. It supports the all AVR families Figure – 6 AVR studio 4
  27. 27. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 27 2) PROTEUS Proteus is simulation software used for various electronic circuit. It contain large library of electronic component. We have designed of circuit using this library. We have simulated our circuit in proteus. We use hex file created by AVR studio for simulation. And finally we got our result . Figure – 6 Proteus
  28. 28. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 28 PROBLEM DEFINITIONS Problem – 1) SUPPLY VOLTAGE We did the direct connection with IC 7805. Problem – 2) CALIBRATION OF ACCELEROMETER Problem – 3) DISPLAY WITH LCD By changing the pins, we solve the problem.
  29. 29. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 29 WORKING MODEL Figure -7 working model (complete)
  30. 30. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 30 PROGRAM #define F_CPU 1000000UL #include<avr/io.h> #include<util/delay.h> #define RS PD2 #define RW PD3 #define EN PD5 #define DATA PORTB void lcd_init(); void lcd_cmd(char); void lcd_data(char); void digicount(unsigned int); void adc_init(); int adc_read(unsigned char); void lcd_string(char *str); int main() { DDRA=0x00; DDRB=0xF0; DDRD=0xFF; DDRC=0xFF; int x,y,z; lcd_init(); adc_init(); lcd_cmd(0x01);
  31. 31. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 31 lcd_string("MINOR PROJECT"); _delay_ms(500); lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_string("MECHATRONICS"); _delay_ms(500); while(1) { //// value of x PORTA=0b00000010; //A06 x =adc_read(1); _delay_ms(100); PORTA=0b00000100; //A05 y =adc_read(2); _delay_ms(100); PORTA=0b00001000; //A05 z =adc_read(3); _delay_ms(100); if ((x>380)&&(x<420)&&(y>380)&&(y<425)&&(z>430)&&(z<480)) //stand { PORTC=0b00000000; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_string("STOP"); _delay_ms(200); }
  32. 32. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 32 if ((x>430)&&(x<490)&&(y>375)&&(y<430)&&(z>390)&&(z<435)) //right { PORTC=0b00001001; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_string("RIGHT"); _delay_ms(200); } if ((x>310)&&(x<350)&&(y>370)&&(y<425)&&(z>375)&&(z<420)) //left { PORTC=0b00000110; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_string("LEFT"); _delay_ms(200); } if ((x>380)&&(x<440)&&(y>445)&&(y<4490)&&(z>385)&&(z<440)) //forward { PORTC=0b00001010; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_string("FORWARD"); _delay_ms(200); } if ((x>360)&&(x<420)&&(y>310)&&(y<370)&&(z>350)&&(z<410)) //reverse {
  33. 33. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 33 PORTC=0b00000101; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_string("REVERSE"); _delay_ms(200); } } return 0; } void lcd_init() { lcd_cmd(0x02); // Home Postition lcd_cmd(0x28); // Scroll display 1 char right lcd_cmd(0x06); // Direction towards right. 0x04 is used for left lcd_cmd(0x0C); } void lcd_string(char*str) // definig string to be displayed { int i=0; while (str[i]!='0') {
  34. 34. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 34 lcd_data(str[i]); //for 8 bit mode i++ ; } } void digicount(unsigned int x) { lcd_cmd(0x04); unsigned int i; while(x!=0) { i=x%10; lcd_data(i+48); x=x/10; } lcd_cmd(0x06); } void adc_init() { ADMUX=(1<<REFS0)|(1<<REFS1); ADCSRA=(1<<ADEN)|(1<<ADPS2)|(1<<ADPS1)|(1<<ADPS0); } int adc_read(unsigned char ch) { ch=ch&0b00000111; ADMUX=0x40|ch; ADCSRA|=(1<<ADSC);
  35. 35. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 35 while(!(ADCSRA&(1<<ADIF))); ADCSRA|=(1<<ADIF); return(ADC); } void lcd_cmd(char A) { PORTB=A&0xF0; PORTD&=~(1<<RS); // Instruction register selected PORTD&=~(1<<RW); // Write mode when RS=0 PORTD|=(1<<EN); // Enable LCD _delay_ms(1); PORTD&=~(1<<EN); // Disable LCD _delay_ms(1); PORTB=(A<<4)&0xF0; PORTD&=~(1<<RS); PORTD&=~(1<<RW); PORTD|=(1<<EN); _delay_ms(1); PORTD&=~(1<<EN); _delay_ms(1); } void lcd_data(char A) { PORTB=A&0xF0; PORTD|=(1<<RS); PORTD&=~(1<<RW); PORTD|=(1<<EN);
  36. 36. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 36 _delay_ms(1); PORTD&=~(1<<EN); _delay_ms(1); PORTB=(A<<4)&0xF0; PORTD|=(1<<RS); PORTD&=~(1<<RW); PORTD|=(1<<EN); _delay_ms(1); PORTD&=~(1<<EN); _delay_ms(1); }
  37. 37. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 37 APPLICATIONS 1. We generally find people working in chemical industries under different hazardous condition. These people suffer with many dangerous diseases like skin cancer, lungs problem and many more. So we finally thought of designing a robot that can copy that instant action of human being under various conditions and situations. So in that place of industry it can be used. 2. Most of the computer games are now using motion detecting remote technology. 3. It is also used in mine
  38. 38. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 38 FUTURE SCOPE In future we can design a wireless robot which can sense hand gesture by using wireless technologies. It can be used in military applications as a robotic vehicle which can be handled by a soldier to avoid casualties. Our system has shown the possibility that interaction with machines through gestures is a feasible task and the set of detected gestures could be enhanced to more commands by implementing a more complex model of a advanced vehicle for not only in limited space while also in broader area as in the roads too . In the future, service robot executing many different tasks from private movement to a fully-fledged advanced automotive that can make disabled to able in all sense.
  39. 39. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 39 Conclusion In our project we have added special features by which our robot can overcome so many problems in industry. If it is further developed then it can be used for military application. An Accelerometer is a kind of sensor which gives an analog data while moving in X,Y,Z direction or may be X,Y direction only depends on the type of the sensor. Here is a small image of an Accelerometer shown. We can see in the image that there are some arrow showing if we tilt these sensor's in that direction then the data at that corresponding pin will change in the analog form. An Accelerometer Controlled robot is a kind of robot which can be controlled by your hand gestures not by old buttons. You just need to wear a small transmitting device in your hand which included an acceleration meter. This will transmit an appropriate command to the robot so that it can do whatever we want. The transmitting device included a comparator IC for analog to digital conversion and an encoder which is use to encode the four bit data and then it will transmit by an RF Transmitter module. At the receiving end an RF Receiver module receives the encoded data and decode it by an decoder.
  40. 40. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 40 REFERENCES ‘www.atmel.com’ ‘www.alldatasheet.com’ ‘www.wikipedia.com’ ‘www.google.com’ ‘ieeexplore.ieee.org’
  41. 41. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 41 APPENDIX - A Component list: Sr. no. Name of component Prize(Rs) 1 Microcontroller (ATMEGA16) 220 8- bit 2 Motor driver (L293D) 75 3 Accelerometer (ADXL335) 1800 4 Dc motor (9V, 150rpm) 500 5 2x16 ALPHANUMERIC LCD 115 DISPLAY 6 Crystal 15 7 Resistor (10k, 1k) 1 8 Capacitor (0.1uf, 10uf) 1 Total 2727.00

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