Papillary carcinoma (>85% os cases)
Follicular carcinoma (5 to 15% of cases)
Medullary carcinomas (5% of cases)
Anaplastic carcinomas(<5%) of cases)
Most thyroid carcinomas (except medullary
carcinomas) are derived from the thyroid
follicular epithelium and are well
Medullary carcinomas are derived from
parafollicular cells or “ C” cells.
Commonest form of thyroid carcinoma
Can occur at any age but more often seen in 25
to 50 yrs of age
Commonest form associated with radiation
Metastasis via lymphatics
Excellent prognosis with 10yr survival rate in
Solitary or multifocal
It can be soft, cystic,
Well circumscribed &
Cut surface reveals
The nuclei appear optically
clear, giving rise to “ ground
It shows cystic spaces ,
papillary projections with
Malignant cells shows
invaginations of cytoplasm in
nuclei “ Orphan annie eye”
Common in women (3:1) & present at older
age than papillary carcinoma.
Peak incidence in 40 t0 60 yrs of age.
More incidence in areas with dietary iodine
Metastasise through blood to lungs , bone
&liver. Prognosis is poorer than papillary Ca.
Single nodules, may be
well circumscribed or
Gray to tan on cut
section and translucent
due to colloid filled
Uniform cells form
differentiation is less.
Nests and sheets of
cells & no colloid.
Is a varient of follicular carcinoma of thyroid
which contains abundant oxyphill cells
Neuroendocrine neoplasm derived from
parafollicular cells ,”C” cells.
Secrete calcitonin –helpful in diagnosis &
They are aggressive and metastasise more
Large lesions contain
areas of hemorrhage and
Tumor tissue is firm, pale,
gray to tan and infiltrative.
Composed of polygonal
to spindle shaped cells,
which form nests ,
trabaculae and even
deposits are present.
One of the most aggressive malignancies
Found in elderly , rare , less than <5%
Metastasis is common, through lymphatics
Death is usually from rapid from aggressive local
Mortality is 100%
Large solid tumour
with necrosis &
Composed of highly anaplastic cells , includes
Pleomorphic giant cells
Mixed spindle and giant cells
Solitary nodules are more likely to be
neoplastic than multiple nodules.
Nodules in younger patients are more likely
to be neoplastic than those in elder.
Nodules in males are more likely to be
neoplastic than are those in females.