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09 fse qualitymanagement


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09 fse qualitymanagement

  1. 1. B. Computer Science (SE) (Hons.) CSEB233: Fundamentals of Software Engineering Software Quality Management
  2. 2. Objectives      Explain the concepts and principles of quality, software quality and software quality management. Discuss several indicators of a high quality software product Present real life quality dilemmas for even the best SE organizations Describe four broad activities that help a software team achieve high quality software Elaborate the concepts, principles, methods and standards for Software Quality Assurance (SQA)
  3. 3. Software Quality Management Concepts and Principles
  4. 4. What is Software Quality Management?  Adopts a number of management principles that are used by upper management to guide their organizations towards improved software product performance     e.g., continuous quality improvement, customer focus, process approach, leadership, etc. Concerned with ensuring that the required level of quality is achieved in a software product Should aim to develop a „quality culture‟ where quality is seen as everyone‟s responsibility Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is often called quality management!
  5. 5. Scope of Software Quality Management  Quality management   The Quality documentation   particularly important for large, complex systems a record of progress and supports continuity of development as the development team changes For smaller systems, quality management needs less documentation and should focus on establishing a „quality culture‟
  6. 6. What is Quality?  The American Heritage Dictionary defines quality as   “a characteristic or attribute of something” For software, two kinds of quality may be encountered:    Quality of design encompasses requirements, specifications, and the design of the system. Quality of conformance is an issue focused primarily on implementation User satisfaction = compliant product + good quality + delivery within budget and schedule
  7. 7. Comments on Quality  Phil Crosby once said:      The problem of quality management is not what people don't know about it. The problem is what they think they do know . . . In this regard, quality has much in common with sex. Everybody is for it. (Under certain conditions, of course.) Everyone feels they understand it. (Even though they wouldn't want to explain it.) Everyone thinks execution is only a matter of following natural inclinations. (After all, we do get along somehow.) And, of course, most people feel that problems in these areas are caused by other people. (If only they would take the time to do things right.)
  8. 8. Software Quality  In 2005, ComputerWorld lamented “bad software” plagues nearly every organization that uses computers, causing       lost work hours during computer downtime, lost or corrupted data, missed sales opportunities, high IT support and maintenance costs, and low customer satisfaction. A year later, InfoWorld wrote about the  “the sorry state of software quality” reporting that the quality problem had not gotten any better
  9. 9. Software Quality Today, software quality remains an issue  Who is to be blamed?  Customers blame developers, arguing that sloppy practices lead to low-quality software  Developers blame customers, and other stakeholders   arguing that irrational delivery dates and stream of changes force them to deliver software before it is fully validated
  10. 10. What is Software Quality?  Software quality can be defined as:   An effective software process applied in a manner that creates a useful product that provides measurable value for those who produce it and those who use it Effective process:   Establishes the infrastructure that supports any effort at building a high quality software product The management aspects of process create the checks and balances that help avoid project chaos - a key contributor to poor quality.
  11. 11. What is Software Quality?  Useful product Delivers the content, functions, and features that the end-user desires in a reliable, error free way  Satisfies requirements of stakeholders and that are expected of all high quality software 
  12. 12. What is Software Quality?  Adding value   High quality software provides benefits to producer and user To producer:   To user:   less maintenance effort, fewer bug fixes, and reduced customer support expedites some business process. End results  Increased revenue, better profitability when an application supports a business process, and/or improved availability of information that is crucial for the business.
  13. 13. Software Quality Management Indicators of High Quality Software
  14. 14. Quality Dimensions and Factors  Can be used as generic quality indicators of a software product Garvin Quality Dimensions  McCall‟s Quality Factors  ISO 9126 Quality Factors  Targeted Factors 
  15. 15. Quality Dimensions and Factors Garvin 1. Performance Quality 2. Feature Quality Reliability 3. Conformance 4. Durability Serviceability 5. Aesthetic 6. Perception McCall 1. Correctness 2. Reliability 3. Efficiency 4. Integrity 5. Usability 6. Maintainability 7. Flexibility 8. Testability 9. Portability 10. Reusability 11. Interoperability ISO 9126 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Functionality Reliability Usability Efficiency Maintainability Portability Targeted 1. 2. 3. 4. Intuitiveness Efficiency Robustness Richness
  16. 16. Quality Dimensions and Factors  Efficiency   The degree to which the software makes optimal use of software resources. Usability  The degree to which the software is easy to learn, use, operate, prepare input for and interpret output from.
  17. 17. Quality Dimensions and Factors  Maintainability   The ease with which repair maybe made to the software Reliability  The amount of time that the software is available for use
  18. 18. Software Quality Management Software Quality Dilemmas
  19. 19. The Software Quality Dilemmas If you produce a software system that has terrible quality, you lose because no one will want to buy it  If you spend infinite time, extremely large effort, and huge sums of money to build an absolutely perfect piece of software,  then it's going to take so long to complete, and  it will be so expensive to produce that you‟ll be out of business anyway 
  20. 20. The Software Quality Dilemmas Either you missed the market window, or you simply exhausted all your resources  So people in industry try to get to that middle ground where  the product is good enough not to be rejected right away, such as during evaluation,  but also not the object of so much perfectionism and so much work that it would take too long or cost too much to complete 
  21. 21. Software Quality Management Achieving High Quality Software
  22. 22. Achieveing Software Quality  Broad activities that help a software team achieve high quality software:  Quality assurance (QA)   establishes the infrastructure that supports solid software engineering methods, rational project management, and quality control actions Quality control (QC) action that helps ensure each work products meets its quality goals  e.g., review design models to ensure that they are complete and consistent 
  23. 23. Achieveing Software Quality  Broad activities that help a software team achieve high quality software:  Software engineering method   understand the problem to be solved, create a design that conforms to the problems and exhibit characteristics that lead to software that are reliable, efficient, usable, etc. Project management technique  use estimation to verify that delivery dates are achievable, schedule dependencies are understood and conduct risk planning so that problem do not breed chaos.
  24. 24. Software Quality Management Software Quality Assurance
  25. 25. Software Quality Assurance (SQA)   An SQA process Specific QA and QC tasks   Effective SE practice (methods and tools)   change management, security management A procedure to ensure compliance with standards   risk management Control of all software work products and changes made to them   technical review, audits, multitier testing strategy etc. IEEE, ISO, CMMI, Six Sigma, etc. Measurement and reporting mechanisms  SQA group
  26. 26. Role of the SQA Group  Prepares an SQA plan for a project, which identifies: evaluations to be performed  audits and reviews to be performed  standards that are applicable to the project  procedures for error reporting and tracking  documents to be produced by the SQA group  amount of feedback provided to the software project team 
  27. 27. Role of the SQA Group Participates in the development of the project‟s software process description  The SQA group reviews  the process description for compliance with organizational policy  internal software standards  externally imposed standards (e.g., ISO9001), and  other parts of the software project plan 
  28. 28. Role of the SQA Group  Reviews software engineering activities to verify compliance with the defined software process   identifies, documents, and tracks deviations from the process and verifies that corrections have been made Audits designated software work products to verify compliance with those defined as part of the software process   reviews selected work products; identifies, documents, and tracks deviations; verifies that corrections have been made periodically reports the results of its work to the project manager
  29. 29. Role of the SQA Group Ensures that deviations in software work and work products are documented and handled according to a documented procedure  Records any noncompliance and reports to senior management.   Noncompliance items are tracked until they are resolved.
  30. 30. SQA Goals  Requirements quality   The correctness, completeness, and consistency of the requirements model strongly influence the quality of all work products that follow Design quality Every element of the design model should be assessed by the software team to ensure that it exhibits high quality, and  The design itself conforms to requirements 
  31. 31. SQA Goals  Code quality Source code and related work products (e.g., other descriptive information) must conform to local coding standards, and  Exhibit characteristics that facilitate maintainability   Quality control effectiveness  Software team should apply limited resources in a way that has the highest likelihood of achieving a high quality result
  32. 32. Statistical SQA  Steps to perform statistical SQA:   Collect and categorize information about software errors and defects Trace each error and defect to its underlying cause   Identify vital few causes of defects (20%) by using the Pareto principle    e.g., non-conformance to specifications, design error, violation of standards, poor communication with customer 80% of defects can be traced to 20% of all possible causes Correct the problems that caused errors and defects Widely used strategy for statistical SQA in the industry is Six Sigma
  33. 33. Six-Sigma for Software Engineering Originally popularized by Motorola in the 1980s  A rigorous and disciplined methodology that uses data and statistical analysis to measure and improve a company‟s operational performance 
  34. 34. Six-Sigma for Software Engineering  The Six Sigma methodology defines three core steps:  Define customer requirements and deliverables and project goals   Measure the existing process and its output to determine current quality performance   Use well-defined methods of customer communication Collect defect metrics Analyze defect metrics and determine the vital few causes
  35. 35. Six-Sigma for Software Engineering  If improvement is required when software process exist, Six Sigma suggest two extra steps: Improve the process by eliminating the root causes of defects  Control the process to ensure that future work does not reintroduce the causes of defects 
  36. 36. ISO 9001:2000 Standard ISO 9001:2000 is the quality assurance standard that applies to software engineering  The standard contains 20 requirements that must be present for an effective quality assurance system 
  37. 37. ISO 9001:2000 Standard  The requirements set down by ISO 9001: 2000 address topics such as management responsibility  quality system  contract review  design control  document and data control  product identification and traceability 
  38. 38. ISO 9001:2000 Standard  The requirements set down by ISO 9001: 2000 address topics such as process control, inspection and testing  corrective and preventive action  control of quality records  internal quality audits  training  servicing, and  statistical techniques 
  39. 39. ISO 9001:2000 Standard  Update and upgrade of standard:  visit _ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=464 86
  40. 40. Summary      The concepts and principles of quality, software quality and software quality management. Several indicators of a high quality software product A real life quality dilemmas for even the best SE organizations Four broad activities that help a software team achieve high quality software The concepts, principles, methods and standards for Software Quality Assurance (SQA)
  41. 41. THE END Copyright © 2013 Mohd. Sharifuddin Ahmad, PhD College of Information Technology