• The world today has become increasingly dependent on information and
communication technologies (ICT).
• Communication Satellites today have become an integral part of global
information infrastructure, connecting people across the world and serving
communications needs of individuals, businesses and governments.
• Satellite communications is enabling breakthroughs like intercontinental
telephony, live television from remote regions, the broadcasting of television
channels to all citizens, global positioning, trunking for telecom operators and
reliable data networks for private companies.
• In recent years, satellite technology has seen a significant leap in advancement.
The Radio Experiment
• 1897, Marconi sent the first ever wireless communication over open sea.
The experiment, witnessed a message transverse over the Bristol Channel
a distance of 6 mms. The message read "Are you ready"
WHAT IS A COMMUNICATION
A satellite is an object that orbits another large
object like planet.
A communication satellite is a station in space
that is used for telecommunication, radio and
The first satellite with radio transmitter was in
• In 1962, the American Telecommunication giant AT & T launched the
world first true communication satellite ,called Telstar.
• Telstar was the first active, direct relay communications satellite.
• It was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, the first
privately sponsored space launch.
• Since then, countless communication satellites have been placed into
earth orbit, and the technology being applied to them is growing is
growing in sophistication.
How do Satellites Works?
• Two Stations on Earth want to communicate through radio
broadcast but are too far away to use conventional
• The two stations can use a satellite as a relay station for
• One Earth Station sends a transmission to the satellite.
This is called a Uplink.
• The satellite Transponder converts the signal and sends it
down to the second earth station. This is called a
HOW SATELLITES ARE USED
• Fixed Service Satellites (FSS)
Example: Point to Point Communication
• Broadcast Service Satellites (BSS)
[Also called as Direct Broadcast Service]
Example: Satellite Television/Radio
• Mobile Service Satellites (MSS)
Example: Satellite Phones
Fixed Service Satellites (FSS)
Fixed satellite service (FSS) is the official classification
for geostationary communications satellites that provide broadcast
feeds to television stations, radio stations and broadcast networks.
FSSs also transmit information
for telephony, telecommunications, and data communications.
Satellites providing Fixed-Satellite Services (FSS) transmit radio
communications between ground Earth stations at fixed locations.
Broadcast Service Satellites (BSS)
Broadcast Service Satellites is also known as Direct-Broadcast
Direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite
television broadcasts intended for home reception.
A direct broadcasting satellite is similar to a fixed service
satellite (FSS) however it offers a higher power output requiring
smaller antennas for receiving the signal.
Subscribers to DBS service use small reception dishes to receive
television programming beamed down from satellites that orbit over
Mobile Service Satellites (MSS)
• Mobile satellite service is service that links mobile earth stations
with base stations and with one another via one or more satellites.
• Mobile-Satellite Services (MSS) use a constellation of satellites
that provide communications services to mobile and portable
wireless devices such as cellular phones and Global Positioning
• E.g.: Satellite phones
Importance of satellite communication in
Communication satellites are not only playing an important
role in facilitating business and commerce the world over, but
are also important agents for socio-economic development.
Some typical applications of communication satellites are:
• Internet Access ·
• Broadband Data Communications ·
• RuralTelephony · ·
• News Distribution ·
• Distance Learning ·
• Multicast Services ·
• Land Mobile Communications ·
• National & Multinational Networks and Aeronautical & Maritime Links
• Easy to install new circuits
• Broadcast possibilities
• Temporary applications (restoration)
• User has control over own network
• Mobile communication can be easily established by satellite communication.
• Satellite communication is economical compared with terrestrial communication
particularly where long distances are involved.
• Compared to the optical fiber communication, satellite communication has the
advantages that, quality of transmitted signal and location of sending and
receiving stations are independent of distance.
• Large up front capital costs (space segment and launch).
• Interference and propagation.
• Congestion of frequencies and orbit.
• The antenna noise due to energy.
• Atmosphere behaves as a resistive medium.
A vision of 2020…
Most peoples will experience HD and ultra-HD media andTV viewing at home
on multiple sets as linear viewing continues to be the mode of choice for
Media content will be delivered using a combination of fiber, cable
networks, wireless terrestrial networks and satellites, leveraging the strengths
of each individual technology and forming ―hybrid satellite-terrestrial
Satellite technology will be a key solution for wide-scale media and data
distribution, whether for digital cinemas, private homes or enterprises in urban
or remote locations
Satellite services will remain a non-intrusive, instant infrastructure, neither
harming protected areas nor disturbing delicate ecosystems.
Terrestrial networks will rely on satellite and fiber for efficiency, e.g., to
distribute high-demand content to the network edges speedily.
Remote facilities, energy plants and industrial processes will be monitored
24/7 by satellite.
Satellites will remain the best utilization used for
communications due to their speed and other advantages
mention in this presentation.
• Digital Satellite Communication-TriT. H
• Satellite Communication-Monojit Mehra