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Ims and qti assessment

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Ims and qti assessment

  1. 1. IMS Specifications and Standards: QTI and Assessment Dr Roger Rist ICBL Heriot-Watt University
  2. 2. Outline of Talk• IMS and Standards• What is interoperability?• The QTI specification for Interoperability• What next?
  3. 3. Who NeedsStandards? • Providers • Vendors • Authors • Mentors • Learners
  4. 4. IMS Global Learning Consortium• Apple, Sun, IBM• Cisco, Oracle, SCT, Saba• Blackboard, WebCT, PeopleSoft• Pearson Education, Thomson Learning• US DoD, Industry Canada• JISC, U. California, U. Michigan• and others• Plus 2000 in developer network
  5. 5. What Does IMS Do? • Develops and promotes the use of specifications for information resources, enterprise system components, and scenarios of activity that enable distributed learning
  6. 6. Why Do We Need Interoperability?• Interoperability solves interchange problems between proprietary question formats and between different users.• The IMS specifications allow the import and export of data that may differ from its original formats.
  7. 7. How Do IMS Specifications Foster Interoperability ? • Interoperability! The goal is to provide a standard format to allow interoperability between many different systems used to create distributed learning.Code &Digitized IMS specifications and Compatible items, Delivery systems,information data modeling templates learning objects, authoring systems, content libraries reporting systems, certification, meta data, assessments
  8. 8. Specification, Implementation, and Standardization Accepted standards Official Sanction ion vis Re IEEE Mature products TrialsInitial specs at ion alu Ev Emerging nd ta Consensus Tes Early implementations
  9. 9. Start with: Consortium Members Standards Domain Specific Bodies Content Consortia ProvidersGovernment ResearchersAgenciesDistributed Learning Test-bedsOrganizations Commercial Developers
  10. 10. What benefits come from Specifications?• They make digital content more independent from services and hardware used to deliver it• They provide more uniform, more precise access to networked learning resources and services• They help extend the life time of capital purchases and organizational changes• They facilitate the integration and maintenance of system components and data resources
  11. 11. IMS Development ProcessFunctional Needs,Technical Means,Practical Constraints Community Review Products, of Interest Board Services, Base Practices Review and Draft feedback Working cycle Group Public Draft Tests and Experiments Final Developers, Release Users
  12. 12. IMS Interface Specifications Harmonization, Consolidation, Consistency Meta-data Digital Libraries Enterprise Systems PackagingLearner EnterpriseEnviron- Mgmt ments Groups Profiles QTI Learner/Group Management Information Services Assessment Services
  13. 13. IMS Specifications• Metadata• Enterprise• Content Packaging• Question and Test Interoperability• ePortfolio• Content Management• Digital Repositories• Learner Information Package• Learning Design• Accessibility for All
  14. 14. IMS Specification Adoption • Microsoft, Blackboard, MindLever, Eduprise, SmartForce, NETg, … • IMS Centres (Europe, Australia, Singapore, Canada, Catalonia-Spain) • DoD SCORM • IEEE LOM • JISC projects - eLearning programme • UK Further Education MLE Program • DoEd LAAP: Indiana University project • DoEd NCAM/IMS Accessibility project
  15. 15. Specification Documents• Information Model – Lists the data elements that comprise the specification• XML Binding Document – Shows how to convert the data in the information model into an XML record• Best Practice Guide – A good place to start as a support document to explain more about the information model – Examples of XML content packaging – Glossary
  16. 16. The Information Model• This document is really the core of the specification. It dictates: – which data elements are expected to appear in a manifest XML file – where those elements may appear in the data structure – a few other constraints on the data elements themselves such as whether they contain a boolean (true or false) value, a string value of a particular length, and so on.
  17. 17. The XML Binding• A binding is a well-defined way of writing down information in a formal language such as XML.• A binding is a technical realization of the information model that defines a content package.• There may be several bindings of the same information model.
  18. 18. The Best Practice Guide• This document is an informative guide to implementing the specification.• It provides help with some questions about how the specification should be used in practice.• It contains guidelines, examples, and implementation issues that users may find helpful when attempting their own implementations of the specification.
  19. 19. What is XML anyway?• Extensible Markup Language is used to structurally describe data• Specification produced and maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium
  20. 20. XML Meets Internet Demands• XML has no predefined tags. XML allows data to pass easily between different applications.• XML is a series of your own tags to delineate: – Elements – Element contents – Element attributes• XML allows all devices, platforms, and devices to share data.
  21. 21. XML Advantages Browser - human readable XSL Style Sheet  XSL Printed material XML StyleData Source Sheet XSL Style Populate web page content SheetData transformation EAI process XML eXtensible Mark Up Language XSL eXtensible Style Language Proprietary application EAI Enterprise Application Integration Business Application
  22. 22. What Is Not Covered by IMS Specs?• User interfaces• Pedagogical paradigms• Policies to constrain innovation, access, interoperability, or re-use
  23. 23. Question and Test Interoperability• What is it? – Defines a standard format that allows interoperability for questions and tests between different computer systems – Formats for constructing and exchanging assessment information – Export from one system and import into another
  24. 24. QTI: Why do we need it?• Allows interchange of questions between computer systems• Allows exchange of questions and tests between different users• Allows publishers to provide questions and tests in a format everyone can use• Allows questions to be built up for the long term
  25. 25. Where is the QTI Info on the IMS Web-site?Click here for the specs The URL is http://www.imsproject.org
  26. 26. IMS QTI page Web-siteClick here to download the specs
  27. 27. QTI Format• Expressed in XML – Tags define the logical structure of the data – Format for holding Question and Test data• Does NOT define how Q &Ts are delivered NOR how results are analysed• Does NOT define how called from a Learning Management System NOR how Q & Ts interact with content
  28. 28. QTI Terms• Items• Assessments• Participants• Sections
  29. 29. Question Types supported 1• Multiple Choice• Multiple Response• True/ False• Image hot spot• Fill in the blank• Short answer text• Numeric entry
  30. 30. Question Types supported continued• Slider• Drag and Drop• Order Objects• Essay Text• Match Item• Connect the points• and others ...• Extensions possible
  31. 31. Scoring and Feedback• Optional not mandatory• Response processing – can assign scores, feedback or other actions depending on the response made• Results handling will be added in future versions
  32. 32. Future Versions• Will describe tests (i.e. assessments and sections) in more detail• Will describe a standard format for holding results• May include proprietary extensions• Compatible with existing specification
  33. 33. Status of IMS QTI• Version 2.1 available in the public domain• This v2.1 Public Draft Version 2 specification is a draft and liable to change before the completion of the Final specification.
  34. 34. IMS QTI Spec Details• Specification of an assessment in a tag language (XML) – <test_title> Chemistry Assessment 2 </test_title>• Further details of IMS – http://www.imsproject.org
  35. 35. Question Mark Tool• First QTI tool - QTI XML Viewer• Converts between QML and IMS QTI XML.• Available from Question Mark’s website• http://www.questionmark.com
  36. 36. CETIS• UK Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards• Funded by JISC• Allows access to IMS groups for ALL UK HEIs• Web site: http://jisc.cetis.ac.uk• Uptake supported by Working Groups
  37. 37. Conclusion• Interoperability : a Good Thing• XML the basis for IMS standards• IMS QTI tool is available• Further information about IMS and QTI from JISC-CETIS

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