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Vital signs


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Vital signs

  1. 1. Vital Signs Lecturer: Mohammed S. Ellulu Anatomy & Physiology 2For Occupational Therapy Students
  2. 2. What are vital signs? are physical signs that indicate an individual is alive.As: Heart beat, Breathing rate, Temperature, Blood pressure, Oxygen saturation. 2
  3. 3. Factors affecting vital signs. Age Sex Weight Exercise3
  4. 4. Conditions All measurements are made while the patient is seated. patient should have had the opportunity to sit for approximately five minutes.Frequency: assessed at least every 4 hours in hospitalized patients to whom with:1) elevated temperatures,2) low or high blood pressures,3) changes in pulse rate or rhythm4) respiratory difficulty5) patients who are taking medications that effect cardiovascular or respiratory function or who had a surgery. 4
  5. 5. Time to assess vital signs On admission to a health care agency to obtain baseline data. When a client has a change in health status or report symptoms such as chest pain or feelings hot or faint. Before and after surgery. Before and/or after the administration of a medication that could affect the respiratory or cardiovascular. Before and after any nursing interventions that could affect the vital signs such as ambulating a client who has been on bed rest. 5
  6. 6. Temperature Balance of heat produced and lost6
  7. 7. Body temperature Reflects the balance between the heat produced and the heat lost from the body.There are two kinds of body temperature: Core temperature is the temperature of the deep tissues of the body such as abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity; it remains relatively constant. The surface temperature is the temperature of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, and fat. It rises and falls in response to the environment. When the amount of heat produced by the body equals the amount of heat loss, the person is in heat balance. 7
  8. 8. Factors affect the body heat production Basal metabolic rate "BMR" is the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities. Muscle activity. Thyroxine output. Epinephrine and sympathetic stimulation/stress response. These hormones immediately increases the rate of cellular metabolism in many body tissues. 8
  9. 9. Factors affecting body temperature Circadian Rhythms; lower in the morning than in the evening. Age; the body temperature of infants and children changes more rapidly in response to both heat and cold. Hormones; women tend to have more fluctuations in body temperature than men. Stress. Environmental temperature. Exercise. 9
  10. 10. Alterations in body temperaturePyrexia• body temperature above the usual rangeHyperpyrexia• very high fever usually above 41 °C and survival is rare when the temperature Reaches 44 °C and death due to damaging effects on the respiratory center.Hypothermia• body temperature below the lower limit of normal10
  11. 11. Respiration rate - Pulse Wave of blood created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart11
  12. 12. Factors affecting pulse Age Gender Exercise Hypo- Fever Drugs volemia Position Pathology12
  13. 13. Pulse The normal pulse for healthy adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. You feel the beats by firmly pressing on the arteries, which are located close to the surface of the skin at certain points of the body. The pulse can be found on the side of the lower neck, on the inside of the elbow, or at the wrist. Measure the rate of the pulse (recorded in beats per minute). Count for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 (or 15 seconds x 4). 13
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  15. 15. Mechanics and regulation of breathing During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts the ribs move upward and outward, and the sternum moves outward, thus enlarging the thorax and permitting the lungs to expand. During exhalation. The diaphragm relaxes, the ribs move downward and inward, and the sternum moves inward, thus decreasing the size of the thorax as the lungs are compressed. 15
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  17. 17. Factors affecting RespirationsFactors increase the rate Factors decrease the rateExercise Decreased environmental temperatureIncrease metabolism Certain medications such as narcoticsStress Increased intra cranial pressureIncreased environmental temperatureLowered oxygen concentrationHyperventilation; refers to very deep, rapid respiration.Hypoventilation; refers to very shallow respirations. 17
  18. 18. Blood Pressure18
  19. 19. Blood pressure Blood pressure is referred to the force of the blood against arterial walls. Maximum blood pressure is exerted on the walls of arteries when the left ventricles of the heart pushes blood through the aortic valve into the aortas during contraction, the highest pressure thus called systolic pressure. Diastolic pressure is the pressure when the ventricles are at rest. Diastolic pressure, then, is the lower pressure present at all times within the arteries. The differences between the two called the pulse pressure. 19
  20. 20. Factors affecting blood pressure Age Gender Exercise Drugs Stress Obesity Race Disease20
  21. 21. Variation of blood pressure Hypertension Hypotensionan abnormally high blood pressure, over blood pressure below normal that is140mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg systolic reading between 85-110mm Hg.diastolic. It occurs as a result of peripheralFactors vasodilatation. Factors Elasticity of the arteries Lifestyle as cigarette smoking Analgesics Obesity Bleeding Lack of physical exercise Severe burn High blood cholesterol level Dehydration Continued exposure to stress 21
  22. 22. Oxygen SaturationNon invasive device that measures arterial blood oxygen saturation by sensor attached to the finger, toe, forehead.22
  23. 23. Factors affecting oxygen saturation reading Hemoglobin; if the hemoglobin is fully saturated with oxygen, the saturation will appear normal even if the total hemoglobin level is low Circulation Activity; shivering or excessive movement of the sensor site may interfere with accurate reading. Carbon monoxide poisoning 23
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention Good Luck