Structure covering

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Structure covering

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Structure covering

  1. 1. STRUCTURE COVERING At the end of this topic, students should be able to: 1. 2. List the structure covering methods. Describe structure covering methods.
  2. 2. Structure Covering Roof installation Small sheet roof Wall installation Door installation Wide sheet roof Door frame installation
  3. 3. Roof Installation Small sheet roof i) Plain tiles
  4. 4. Small sheet roof ii) S-curve tiles
  5. 5. Small sheet roof iii) Interlocking tiles S manifold tile (15° minimum slope) Double S manifold tile (22.5° minimum slope) Plain tile (17.5° minimum slope) Interlocking tile shapes. Installation of the interlocking tiles on timber roof structure.
  6. 6. Procedures of interlocking tiles roof cover installation at roof frame 1. 2. Lay felt layer over the roof frame rafters. Fix 25mm x 50mm battens size by nailing horizontally.
  7. 7. 3. Battens distance from each centre is calculated according to this formula. Battens distance c – c = Tile length – lap 2 = 420mm – 120mm 2 = 360mm
  8. 8. 4. Tiles slates are laid over battens and nailed. Start laying from the lowest batten
  9. 9. 5. At the highest part of roof, ridge tiles are used to cover holes between the two roof parts.
  10. 10. Wide sheet roof i) Grooved asbestos ii) Grooved zinc Installation of grooved asbestos sheet
  11. 11. Wall Installation Wall characteristics: Characteristics Description Stability Walls construction should be strong and stable. Strength Walls should be able to support load, sustain stress and compression load. Weather resistance Walls should be able resist extreme cool and hot temperature as well as to prevent rain penetration. Fire resistance Walls should be able to resist fire. Sound absorption Walls should be able to absorb sound.
  12. 12. Procedures of brick wall construction 1. 2. Mark brick wall location according to plan and peg signs. Build both ends simultaneously until their height reach three or four brick layers. Ensure the end parts are laid vertically and evenly by using spirit level as well as gauge in the right position by using layer gauge.
  13. 13. 3. Build walls between both ends until it is similar to the edge parts. Always ensure walls are constructed vertically and evenly as well as in straight line by using a stretched thread. Use pointing trowel for finishing bond. 4. Repeat step 2 and 3 until the wall work is completed.
  14. 14. Examples of brick wall bonding methods Stretcher bond English bond Flemish bond English yard bond
  15. 15. Door Frame Installation
  16. 16. Essential aspects during door frame installation Aspect Purpose Method Frame must be perpendicular ●The door will be easily installed ●The door will be easily opened and closed ●Test Frame must be vertical and same level ●The door will be easily installed ●Test Strengthening frame position ●To ●Nail acquire strong anchorage to the wall. using try-square ●Install temporary struts at top angle and below part using spirit level at top of head, internal parts and in front of jambs ●Install temporary struts galvanized iron fishtail clamp into the jambs behind the brick wall ●Build horn or joggle at both end of head
  17. 17. Door Installation A door is installed to a door frame by using hinges. Examples of door
  18. 18. Window Frame Installation
  19. 19. Procedures to install window frame 1. Raise the window frame on top of constructed brick wall and test its flatness level using a spirit level. Accuracy is obtained when the air bubble moves to the centre of spirit level tube. 2. Make sure the window frame position is vertical. Install temporary struts to internal and external parts of wall so that window frame is fixed to its position.
  20. 20. 3. Proceed bricklaying work at the left and right window sides until it reaches similar level as the head. Galvanized iron fishtail wall clamps are installed to each four layer of bricks. 4. Build reinforced concrete lintel on top of the head. The purpose is to transfer imposed load from the wall above to the side wall.

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