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Towards   Designing Adaptive          interfaces for Children          Studying the effect of          Age and Gender in t...
Design Adaptive interfaces        Motivation                  for children•Age and Gender      differences                ...
Design Adaptive interfaces        Motivation                  for children•Age and Gender      differences                ...
Design Adaptive interfaces        Motivation                  for children•Age and Gender      differences                ...
Design Adaptive interfaces        Motivation                  for children•Age and Gender      differences •Not just usabl...
Design Adaptive interfaces         Motivation                  for children •Age and Gender       differences  •Not just u...
Overview2 studies195 children = 111 + 84Age 3 to 128 design factors                          7
Setup        8
Setup        9
Setup        10
First studyExplore general difficulties + interaction differences                               11
Gender differences              Observed behaviour                      Girls       BoysDistracted from painting activity ...
Categorize by Age    Group           Ages              Label1            3, 4, 5            Pre-literate2            6, 7 ...
Problems with Dialogs by Age groups           Problems with                            Age group             dialog box   ...
Design factorsTo fix problems with dialogs                               15
Design factors1. Color coding                  16
Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting                  17
Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting3. Split structure                     18
Design factors1.   Color coding2.   Highlighting3.   Split structure4.   Safer arbitrary     choices     • I don’t know   ...
Design factors1.   Color coding2.   Highlighting3.   Split structure4.   Safer arbitrary     choices     • I don’t know   ...
Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting3. Split structure4. Safer arbitrary   choices   • I don’t know   • Delayed-  ...
Second studyGoal: Informally evaluate the designs                                        22
Color coding• Disruptive options clicked slower• Helped pre-literates• Negative interaction with age  – Pre-literates     ...
Highlighting• Sped up clicking on safer option• Weaker cue• Weaker interaction with age  – Pre-literates       + 23%  – Se...
Split structure• Children indifferent• Older children faster  – Boys faster, Girls slower  – Spatial processing           ...
Safer Arbitrary choices• “I don’t know” + Delayed-click  = more clicks• Frequency increases over  last revealed button• Ch...
Visibility of body text, title• Children indifferent to missing text• Text visible  – Pre- and semi-literates slower  – Li...
Summary of findings       Design factor                         Age groups                  Gender                        ...
Preliminary theoriesOn information consumption                             29
Information channelsConsumption        Textual channel   Non-textual channelSpeed              High              LowAccura...
Model of info. consumption                             31
Design implications     Towards designing adaptiveinterfaces for children based on age,                gender             ...
Design implications - GenderGirls                         Boys• Primarily Textual info      • Fast & easy consumption   – ...
Design implications - AgePre-literates                    Semi-literates• Primarily non-textual cues     • Both text and n...
Future work• Controlled study• Icon research• Touch screens                             35
That is all folks!THANK YOU                     36
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Designing adaptive interfaces for children

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A preliminary study on the effect of age and gender on children’s interaction in the context of dialoguing with computers. Master's thesis of Mohan Raj Rajamanickam. Thesis at https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/39441

More info @ http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~mohanr/

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Designing adaptive interfaces for children

  1. 1. Towards Designing Adaptive interfaces for Children Studying the effect of Age and Gender in the context of Dialoguing with computers Mohan Raj Rajamanickam Dr. Charlotte Tang Professor Joanna McGrenere 1
  2. 2. Design Adaptive interfaces Motivation for children•Age and Gender differences 2
  3. 3. Design Adaptive interfaces Motivation for children•Age and Gender differences 3
  4. 4. Design Adaptive interfaces Motivation for children•Age and Gender differences 4
  5. 5. Design Adaptive interfaces Motivation for children•Age and Gender differences •Not just usable 5
  6. 6. Design Adaptive interfaces Motivation for children •Age and Gender differences •Not just usable•Developmentally appropriate 6
  7. 7. Overview2 studies195 children = 111 + 84Age 3 to 128 design factors 7
  8. 8. Setup 8
  9. 9. Setup 9
  10. 10. Setup 10
  11. 11. First studyExplore general difficulties + interaction differences 11
  12. 12. Gender differences Observed behaviour Girls BoysDistracted from painting activity Less MoreStruggled to come up with an idea to paint Less MoreTendency to create the painting from scratch More LessUsed pre-existing drawing components Less MoreInclined to seek help from adults More LessTime spent on study session Less MoreExplored features of the software Less MoreStyle of reading text on dialog boxes Thorough CasualSpeed of interaction with dialogs Slower Faster 12
  13. 13. Categorize by Age Group Ages Label1 3, 4, 5 Pre-literate2 6, 7 Semi-literate3 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Literate 13
  14. 14. Problems with Dialogs by Age groups Problems with Age group dialog box Pre-literate Semi-literate LiterateCausalityWhy did it appear all of a sudden?HindranceWhy is it stuck?AffordanceWhat is it doing here?CommunicationWhat is it saying?ConsequenceWhat should I do now?PatienceWhatever... 14
  15. 15. Design factorsTo fix problems with dialogs 15
  16. 16. Design factors1. Color coding 16
  17. 17. Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting 17
  18. 18. Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting3. Split structure 18
  19. 19. Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting3. Split structure4. Safer arbitrary choices • I don’t know 19
  20. 20. Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting3. Split structure4. Safer arbitrary choices • I don’t know • Delayed- click 20
  21. 21. Design factors1. Color coding2. Highlighting3. Split structure4. Safer arbitrary choices • I don’t know • Delayed- click5. Visibility of body text, title 21
  22. 22. Second studyGoal: Informally evaluate the designs 22
  23. 23. Color coding• Disruptive options clicked slower• Helped pre-literates• Negative interaction with age – Pre-literates + 30% – Semi-literates - 8% – Literates - 98% 23
  24. 24. Highlighting• Sped up clicking on safer option• Weaker cue• Weaker interaction with age – Pre-literates + 23% – Semi-literates + 28% – Literates - 36%• Girls unaffected, boys benefited 24
  25. 25. Split structure• Children indifferent• Older children faster – Boys faster, Girls slower – Spatial processing 25
  26. 26. Safer Arbitrary choices• “I don’t know” + Delayed-click = more clicks• Frequency increases over last revealed button• Children disliked waiting 26
  27. 27. Visibility of body text, title• Children indifferent to missing text• Text visible – Pre- and semi-literates slower – Literates faster 27
  28. 28. Summary of findings Design factor Age groups Gender Pre- Semi- Literates Boys Girls literates literatesSplit-structureVisibility of body text, titleColor coding buttonsHighlightingDelayed-click 28
  29. 29. Preliminary theoriesOn information consumption 29
  30. 30. Information channelsConsumption Textual channel Non-textual channelSpeed High LowAccuracy High LowReliability High Low 30
  31. 31. Model of info. consumption 31
  32. 32. Design implications Towards designing adaptiveinterfaces for children based on age, gender 32
  33. 33. Design implications - GenderGirls Boys• Primarily Textual info • Fast & easy consumption – Reading ability • Non-textual cues – Patience – Color coding – Thorough – Highlighting• Non-textual cues optional• Spatially coherent structures 33
  34. 34. Design implications - AgePre-literates Semi-literates• Primarily non-textual cues • Both text and non-textual – Biggest benefactors – Key words • Color coding Literates • Highlighting – Worst performance without • Text without cues• Minimal text – Process text well – Encourage learning – Poorly with non-textual – Parents – Stronger cues 34
  35. 35. Future work• Controlled study• Icon research• Touch screens 35
  36. 36. That is all folks!THANK YOU 36

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