SHIFT WORKANU   STANLEY GEORGE   ASHISH JOSHI                                  1
Shift work is a fact of modern society.     Police and Fire       protection                 Health Care               Tra...
Shift work usually means regularly scheduled work conductedoutside of the normal daytime working hours of 7:00a.m to6:00p....
• The body has a 24 hour ‘biological clock’ (known as the circadian  rhythm) that tells it when to sleep and when to wake ...
The Biological Clock   5
Problems associated with shift work can include:•Health hazards•Family and social issues•Safety hazardsWhat are the HAZARD...
• Disrupted sleep and eating patterns interfere with digestion.• These disruptions can result in sleep and stress-related ...
Gastrointestinal problems, particularly ulcers, are more commonamong shift workers. Factors that may contribute to these p...
• Shift work decreases the quality and amount of sleep• An accumulated sleep deficit can lead to serious  problems like:  ...
• Some studies note that cardiovascular disease and heart  attacks occur more frequently in certain occupational  groups t...
•Asthma•Diabetes•Epilepsy•Depressionmay be made worse by shift work.OTHER ILLNESSES                    11
• Studies indicate that, compared to day workers,  certain groups of shift workers report using more alcohol,  caffeine an...
• Shift workers usually have less time to spend with their  family and friends.• They are often at work when social activi...
Safety problems associated with shift workinclude:•Performance•Risk of Accidents•ViolenceSAFETY HAZARDS                   ...
• Performing tasks that require alertness may be worse at  night, when workers bodies are prepared for sleep  Performance ...
• Shift work can lead to sleepiness, decrease in performance,  alertness, perception and decision-making ability.• Evidenc...
Hazard controls for shift work include:•Organisational controls•Shift scheduling•Workplace design•Worker Education and ins...
• Limit shift work to essential jobs.• Toughest and most dangerous tasks must be completed in  the dayshift and less deman...
• Concept of compressed work week: These shifts usually  involve three to four days of 10 to 12 hour shifts. It provides  ...
Rotating or Variable ShiftsAdapting to rotating shift schedules can be affected bythe:•Length of the break before changing...
• Avoid starting day shifts early in the morning  (before 5:00 A.M.).• Regular schedules and the workers must be informed ...
Workplace design can improve conditions for shift workersby:•Reducing night traffic, noise and distractions.•Designing wor...
• How to Recognize the symptoms of poor health.• How to Control shift work hazards.• How they can minimize the effects of ...
• Protecting their sleep periods by maintaining regular rest  and wake routines, keeping light out of the bedroom,  discon...
Employers are required by The Health and Safety at worketc Act, 1974, The Management of Health and SafetyRegulations 1999,...
THANK YOU   26
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Shift work anu stan & ashish

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Shift work anu stan & ashish

  1. 1. SHIFT WORKANU STANLEY GEORGE ASHISH JOSHI 1
  2. 2. Shift work is a fact of modern society. Police and Fire protection Health Care Transportation Garment Textile Mills manufacturing Production of certain goodsAs a result, many workplaces operate 24 hours aday.INTRODUCTION 2
  3. 3. Shift work usually means regularly scheduled work conductedoutside of the normal daytime working hours of 7:00a.m to6:00p.m and includes:•Permanent night shifts, or other permanent shifts thatextend into the evening or night (such as afternoon andevening shifts), or begin before 6:00 A.M.•Variable or rotating shifts that change work times fromday to evening or day to night. The change may occur weeklyor monthly.WHAT IS SHIFT WORK? 3
  4. 4. • The body has a 24 hour ‘biological clock’ (known as the circadian rhythm) that tells it when to sleep and when to wake up. Sunlight and darkness regulate this clock.(PICTURE OF THAT CLOCK)• Normally, darkness triggers changes in the body that lead to sleep. When falling asleep, the body’s blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate and temperature drop. Digestion also slows.• Certain repair and maintenance processes occur during a phase of sleep known as delta sleep. It takes the body some time to reach delta sleep. Subsequent phases of sleep are important to psychological well-being.• Working during normal sleep hours affects the bodys ability to digest food, rest, restore and repair itself and may affect a person’s sense of well-beingHow can shift work affectthe workers? 4
  5. 5. The Biological Clock 5
  6. 6. Problems associated with shift work can include:•Health hazards•Family and social issues•Safety hazardsWhat are the HAZARDS? 6
  7. 7. • Disrupted sleep and eating patterns interfere with digestion.• These disruptions can result in sleep and stress-related disorders and may affect the cardiovascular system.• Shift work often involves working in excess of 8 hours. These extended shifts can expose workers to more chemical and biological substances, noise, vibration and temperature extremes.HEALTH HAZARDS 7
  8. 8. Gastrointestinal problems, particularly ulcers, are more commonamong shift workers. Factors that may contribute to these problemsinclude the following:•Consumption of night time snacks in addition to daytime meals.•Eat at night when digestion and other body functions are sloweddown.•Consuming less nutritious foods on night shifts containing highfat content.•Drinking more coffee to stay alert at night. Heavy coffeeconsumption increases the risk of developing ulcers.GASTROINTESTINALPROBLEMS 8
  9. 9. • Shift work decreases the quality and amount of sleep• An accumulated sleep deficit can lead to serious problems like: Chronic Muscle pain/ Mental Excessive Fatigue Stiffness Exhaustion and sleepiness during irritability Insomnia Eye Fatigue the day Frequent dizzy spellsSLEEP AND STRESS RELATEDDISORDERS 9
  10. 10. • Some studies note that cardiovascular disease and heart attacks occur more frequently in certain occupational groups that work shifts.REASONS:• Altered eating habits of shift workers.• Disrupted sleep patterns increases stress, blood pressure and smoking.• Reduced physical activityCARDIOVASCULARPROBLEMS 10
  11. 11. •Asthma•Diabetes•Epilepsy•Depressionmay be made worse by shift work.OTHER ILLNESSES 11
  12. 12. • Studies indicate that, compared to day workers, certain groups of shift workers report using more alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.• Shift workers may use these substances to help them stay awake on the job. Other study results show that some groups of shift workers report using more over-the-counter and prescription sleeping pills than day workersDRUG AND ALCOHOL USE 12
  13. 13. • Shift workers usually have less time to spend with their family and friends.• They are often at work when social activities are scheduled and at home when others at work.• Fatigue may also prevent them from enjoying social activities that they are able to participate in.• These restrictions may strain relationships.FAMILY & SOCIAL ISSUES 13
  14. 14. Safety problems associated with shift workinclude:•Performance•Risk of Accidents•ViolenceSAFETY HAZARDS 14
  15. 15. • Performing tasks that require alertness may be worse at night, when workers bodies are prepared for sleep Performance levels appear to be lowest between 3:30 A.M and 5:30 P.M.• An accumulated sleep deficit from prolonged shift work can decrease a workers level of performance and alertness.• Working extended shifts can also cause poor performance and decreased alertness. Performance deteriorates on extended work that is physically and mentally demanding.• Perception and decision-making ability may also be affected on extended shifts.PERFORMANCE 15
  16. 16. • Shift work can lead to sleepiness, decrease in performance, alertness, perception and decision-making ability.• Evidences suggests that shift workers have a decreased ability to respond effectively to emergencies resulting into accidents and injuries.• Certain types of shift work involve working alone at night. These workers may be more vulnerable to violence from customers, residents, inmates, etc.RISK OF ACCIDENTS &VIOLENCE 16
  17. 17. Hazard controls for shift work include:•Organisational controls•Shift scheduling•Workplace design•Worker Education and instruction•Violence PoliciesHow can shift hazards becontrolled? 17
  18. 18. • Limit shift work to essential jobs.• Toughest and most dangerous tasks must be completed in the dayshift and less demanding jobs in the night shift.• Supervision is very important between 3:30a.m and 5:30p.m when performance is at its lowest.• Supervise inexperienced workers more closely.• Allow adequate meal and rest break.• Implement effective emergency response procedures.Organizational Controls 18
  19. 19. • Concept of compressed work week: These shifts usually involve three to four days of 10 to 12 hour shifts. It provides more time between shift schedules and more opportunities for family and social activities.• But they increase fatigue and decrease performance at the end of shifts.• Also extend worker’s daily exposure to chemical, biological and physical hazards.• Permanent afternoon, evening or night shifts: - These shifts allow workers time to adjust, but are disruptive to their social lives and may also accumulate a greater sleep deficit.SHIFT SCHEDULING 19
  20. 20. Rotating or Variable ShiftsAdapting to rotating shift schedules can be affected bythe:•Length of the break before changing to a new shift•Speed of the rotation: Longer rotations of 10 to 14 daysmay allow more time for the body to adjust to shift.•Direction of the rotation: Clockwise is favourable thenanticlockwise.SHIFT SCHEDULING 20
  21. 21. • Avoid starting day shifts early in the morning (before 5:00 A.M.).• Regular schedules and the workers must be informed about it well in advance.• Avoid 2 shifts within a day.• Avoid hazardous jobs at night that involve mental efforts and monotonous operations in dimly lit environments.• Also these jobs are preferred to be of 8hrs then 12hrs.•DECIDING SHIFT SCHEDULING 21
  22. 22. Workplace design can improve conditions for shift workersby:•Reducing night traffic, noise and distractions.•Designing work areas to reduce physical, chemical andbiological hazards and limit exposures to harmful chemicaland biological substances and must not exceed the MEL.•Allow workers to play music that will keep awake.•Providing food preparation areas if a cafeteria is not available•Providing good ventilation, temperature control, m/cgrading etc. for better working environment.WORKPLACE DESIGN 22
  23. 23. • How to Recognize the symptoms of poor health.• How to Control shift work hazards.• How they can minimize the effects of shift work on themselves.Worker Education &Instruction 23
  24. 24. • Protecting their sleep periods by maintaining regular rest and wake routines, keeping light out of the bedroom, disconnecting the phone, ensuring a quiet sleeping area and so forth.• Eating nutritious meals, keeping a regular meal routine and selecting meals rich in carbohydrates—rather than heavy, fatty, high protein meals—before bedtime.• Maintaining physical fitness.• Learning strategies to remain alert while on the job.• Adjusting family and social life to spend sufficient social time with family and friends.Worker Education &Instruction 24
  25. 25. Employers are required by The Health and Safety at worketc Act, 1974, The Management of Health and SafetyRegulations 1999, to develop a policy to minimize oreliminate the risk of violence. The policy must:•Identify workers at risk and inform them about thenature and degree of the risk.•Identify actions to minimize or eliminate the risk.•Identify how violent incidents involving workers will beinvestigated and followed-up.•Include worker training.VIOLENCE POLICY 25
  26. 26. THANK YOU 26

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