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Reproductive health mohanbio


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Reproductive health mohanbio

  1. 1. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH • It is the state of physical, emotional, behavioral and social fitness for leading a reproductive life. • According to WHO, A total well being in all apects of reproduction. • To achieve this family planning” initiated in 1951. • REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – PROBLEM AND STRATEGIES: • In Indian culture discussing about knowledge of sex and reproductive health is wrong thing.
  2. 2. • Early marriage as soon as girls attains puberty. • The teen age girl is not fit to bear foetus. • After marriage, the career of lady is blocked in lot of family. • Maternal and infant mortality rate are high in early marriages. • There is little knowledge about personal hygiene to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. • There may be population explosion with lack of reproductive health.
  3. 3. • STRATEGIES: • Number of program are lanched under reproductive and child health care (RCH). • Awareness programme are conducted for both male and female to lead healthy reproductive life. • Awareness creating about fertility regulating method. • Awareness creating about personal hygiene, • Preventing and Protecting against sexually transmitted diseases.
  4. 4. • POPULATION EXPLOSION AND BIRTH CONTROL: • The increase in size and growth of human population is called population explosion. • The reason for high population explosion are, 1. Decline in death rate. 2. Longer life span. 3. Decline in maternal mortality rate. 4. Decline in infant mortality rate. 5. Some religious belief against birth control. 6. Lack of reproductive health knowledge.
  5. 5. • Birth control: • Family welfare and family planning programs comes forward to avoid uncontrolled human population explosion. • The contraception is the main aim of the birth control. • Prevention of conception or fertilization of ovum during sexual inter course is called contraception. The different types of contraception are, • Natural method. • Barrier method. • Intra uterine device [IUD’s]. • Oral contraception. • Injection and implantation. • Surgical method.
  6. 6. • Natural methods: • It work on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperms meeting. • Periodic abstinence: • Is a method in which couple avoid or abstain coitus form day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected. • Withdrawal or coitus interruption: • In this method male partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation to avoid insemination.
  7. 7. • Lactational amenorrhea: • It cause due to intense lactation for about six months after parturition. • No menstruation occurs during lactation period. Hence chance of fertilization is abent. • Physical contraceptive or Barrier methods: • This method prevents contact of sperm and ovum by barrier. Such methods available both for male and female.
  8. 8. • Condoms: • Condom are barriers made of thin rubber latex sheath. • The male condom is used to cover the penis. It is used just before coitus so that semen not entered into the female reproductive tract. • It also prevents AIDS and STDs. • The female condoms are Diaphragm, cervical caps and vaults made of rubber latex. • These are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix.
  9. 9. • Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs ): • These devices are only used by female. doctor or by expert nurses insert these into the uterus through vagina. • Different types of IUDs are, • Non-medicated IUDs e.g. Lippes loop: Acts as barrier. • Copper releasing IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375): • Cu ion released suppresses sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperm. • It Increase phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.
  10. 10. • Hormone releasing IUDs (Progestasert, LNG-20): • make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperm.
  11. 11. • Chemical contraceptive • Oral contraceptives: This methods is for female only. • These are used in the form of tablets popularly called pills. • It contain progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combination.
  12. 12. • Pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days started within first five days of menstruation. • Saheli- a non steroidal preparation used as oral contraceptive pills
  13. 13. • Injections or implants: • Progestogens alone or in combination with estrogen used as injections or implants under the skin of female. • It is very effective for long periods.
  14. 14. • Emergency contraceptives: • These methods are used within 72 hours of coitus, casual in unprotected intercourse. • Administration of progestogens or progestogenestrogen combination.
  15. 15. • Surgical methods: • It is also called as sterilization method advised to both male and female partner. • It is permanent method to prevent pregnancy. • Sterilization surgery in male is called ‘vasectomy, • In vasectomy, a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up.
  16. 16. • Sterilization surgery in female is called ‘Tubectomy’ • In Tubectomy a small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up.
  17. 17. • MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (MTP): • Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy is called medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) or induced abortion. • MTP has significant role in decreasing population. • Legal restriction is there only to reduce female foeticide. • This method is safe within 1st trimester.
  18. 18. • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: • Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are called STDs. • These are also known as Venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTIs) • Ex: Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B and HIV. • Except hepatitis-B, genital herpes and HIV infections, others are curable. Bcoz thee are viral diseases.
  19. 19. • Symptoms: • Itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swelling in the genital region. • STDs remain asymptomatic in female and remain undetected for long. • In the later stage it may leads to Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), abortion, infertility or even cancer in Reproductive tract. • Preventions: • Avoiding sex with unknown partners or multiple partners. • Always using condoms during coitus. • In case of doubt, consulting a doctor for early detection. • Getting complete treatment for diagnosed disease.
  20. 20. • INFERTILITY: • The couple unable to produce children inspite of unprotected sex is called infertility. Problems of infertility may be in male or female. • The reason of infertility may be:1. physical, 2. diseases, 3. drugs, 4. immunological or 5. Even psychological.
  21. 21. • Methods of infertility control: 1. IVF-ET: In Vitro Fertilization – embryo transfer. 2. GIFT: Gamete Intra Fallopian transfer. 3. ZIFT: Zygote Intra Fallopian transfer. 4. IUI: Intra Uterine Insemination.
  22. 22. • Embryo transfer: • It Is popularly known as test tube baby program. • In this technique ova from the wife/donor and sperm from the husband/donor are collected. These are induced to fertilization to form zygote under laboratory conditions. • The zygote or early embryos (with upto 8 blastomeres) could be transferred into the fallopian tube. • Further development taken place within the female body.
  23. 23. • Gamete intra fallopian transfer- GIFT • It is the transfer of ovum collected from the donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce it. • Artificial insemination (AI) or (IUI-intra uterine insemination) • In this technique semen is collected either from the husband or donor is artificially introduced into the uterus of the female. • It is useful in cases either the male partner unable to inseminate in the female or very low sperm counts.