• It is the state of physical, emotional, behavioral
and social fitness for leading a reproductive life.
• According to WHO, A total well being in all apects
• To achieve this family planning” initiated in
• REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – PROBLEM AND
• In Indian culture discussing about knowledge of
sex and reproductive health is wrong thing.
• Early marriage as soon as girls attains puberty.
• The teen age girl is not fit to bear foetus.
• After marriage, the career of lady is blocked in lot
• Maternal and infant mortality rate are high in
• There is little knowledge about personal hygiene
to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
• There may be population explosion with lack of
• Number of program are lanched under
reproductive and child health care (RCH).
• Awareness programme are conducted for
both male and female to lead healthy
• Awareness creating about fertility regulating
• Awareness creating about personal hygiene,
• Preventing and Protecting against sexually
• POPULATION EXPLOSION AND BIRTH CONTROL:
• The increase in size and growth of human
population is called population explosion.
• The reason for high population explosion are,
1. Decline in death rate.
2. Longer life span.
3. Decline in maternal mortality rate.
4. Decline in infant mortality rate.
5. Some religious belief against birth control.
6. Lack of reproductive health knowledge.
• Birth control:
• Family welfare and family planning programs comes
forward to avoid uncontrolled human population
• The contraception is the main aim of the birth control.
• Prevention of conception or fertilization of ovum
during sexual inter course is called contraception. The
different types of contraception are,
• Natural method.
• Barrier method.
• Intra uterine device [IUD’s].
• Oral contraception.
• Injection and implantation.
• Surgical method.
• Natural methods:
• It work on the principle of avoiding chances of
ovum and sperms meeting.
• Periodic abstinence:
• Is a method in which couple avoid or abstain coitus
form day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when
ovulation could be expected.
• Withdrawal or coitus interruption:
• In this method male partner withdraws his penis
from the vagina just before ejaculation to avoid
• Lactational amenorrhea:
• It cause due to intense lactation for about six
months after parturition.
• No menstruation occurs during lactation period.
Hence chance of fertilization is abent.
• Physical contraceptive or Barrier methods:
• This method prevents contact of sperm and ovum
by barrier. Such methods available both for male
• Condom are barriers made of
thin rubber latex sheath.
• The male condom is used to
cover the penis. It is used just
before coitus so that semen not
entered into the female
• It also prevents AIDS and STDs.
• The female condoms are
Diaphragm, cervical caps and
vaults made of rubber latex.
• These are inserted into the
female reproductive tract to
cover the cervix.
• Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs ):
• These devices are only used by
female. doctor or by expert
nurses insert these into the
uterus through vagina.
• Different types of IUDs are,
• Non-medicated IUDs e.g.
Lippes loop: Acts as barrier.
• Copper releasing IUDs
(CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375):
• Cu ion released suppresses
sperm motility and fertilizing
capacity of sperm.
• It Increase phagocytosis of
sperm within the uterus.
• Hormone releasing IUDs
• make the uterus unsuitable
for implantation and the
cervix hostile to the sperm.
• Chemical contraceptive
• Oral contraceptives: This methods is for female only.
• These are used in the form of tablets popularly called
• It contain progestogens or progestogen-estrogen
• Pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days
started within first five days of menstruation.
• Saheli- a non steroidal preparation used as oral
• Injections or implants:
• Progestogens alone or in combination with
estrogen used as injections or implants under
the skin of female.
• It is very effective for long periods.
• Emergency contraceptives:
• These methods are used within 72 hours of
coitus, casual in unprotected intercourse.
• Administration of progestogens or progestogenestrogen combination.
• Surgical methods:
• It is also called as sterilization
method advised to both male
and female partner.
• It is permanent method to
• Sterilization surgery in male is
• In vasectomy, a small part of
the vas deferens is removed
or tied up.
• Sterilization surgery
in female is called
• In Tubectomy a small
part of the fallopian
tube is removed or
• MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (MTP):
• Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy
is called medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
or induced abortion.
• MTP has significant role in decreasing population.
• Legal restriction is there only to reduce female
• This method is safe within 1st trimester.
• SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES:
• Diseases or infections which are transmitted
through sexual intercourse are called STDs.
• These are also known as Venereal diseases (VD) or
reproductive tract infections (RTIs)
• Ex: Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Genital
herpes, chlamydiasis, genital
warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B and HIV.
• Except hepatitis-B, genital herpes and HIV
infections, others are curable. Bcoz thee are viral
• Itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swelling in the
• STDs remain asymptomatic in female and remain
undetected for long.
• In the later stage it may leads to Pelvic inflammatory
diseases (PID), abortion, infertility or even cancer in
• Avoiding sex with unknown partners or multiple
• Always using condoms during coitus.
• In case of doubt, consulting a doctor for early
• Getting complete treatment for diagnosed disease.
• The couple unable to produce children inspite
of unprotected sex is called infertility.
Problems of infertility may be in male or
• The reason of infertility may be:1. physical,
4. immunological or
5. Even psychological.
• Methods of infertility control:
1. IVF-ET: In Vitro Fertilization – embryo transfer.
2. GIFT: Gamete Intra Fallopian transfer.
3. ZIFT: Zygote Intra Fallopian transfer.
4. IUI: Intra Uterine Insemination.
• Embryo transfer:
• It Is popularly known as test tube baby program.
• In this technique ova from the wife/donor and
sperm from the husband/donor are collected.
These are induced to fertilization to form zygote
under laboratory conditions.
• The zygote or early embryos (with upto 8
blastomeres) could be transferred into the
• Further development taken place within the
• Gamete intra fallopian transfer- GIFT
• It is the transfer of ovum collected from the
donor into the fallopian tube of another female
who cannot produce it.
• Artificial insemination (AI) or (IUI-intra uterine
• In this technique semen is collected either from
the husband or donor is artificially introduced
into the uterus of the female.
• It is useful in cases either the male partner
unable to inseminate in the female or very low