Diversity in the living world. mohanBio


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Diversity in the living world. mohanBio

  1. 1. Unit 1. Diversity in the living world
  2. 2. • BIOLOGY: - The word biology was taken from Greek. Bio means life, logy means study of. Therefore biology means study of life. • The branch of science, which deals with the study of structure, function, habitat and economic importance of organism is called biology. • Aristotle was considered as father of biology. • Life: - The living activity shown by an organism from birth to death is called life.
  3. 3. • Characteristics of living organism: • Growth: The living things exhibit internal growth or intersusception growth.
  4. 4. • Reproduction: During the life span all living organism reproduce themselves. Some organisms reproduce asexually & some sexually.
  5. 5. • Metabolism: The living organism have metabolism. The total sum of chemical reaction occurs in side the organism is called metabolism. • It is classified into 2 types. 1. Anabolism 2. Catabolism
  6. 6. • Anabolism: - It is the chemical reactions in which large molecules are builds from smaller components. • These are constructive reactions. • EX: photosynthesis
  7. 7. • Catabolism: - It is the chemical reactions in which break down of large molecules in to smaller components. • These are distructive reactions • EX: Cellular respiration, in which glucose is broken down in to CO2 & H2O.
  8. 8. • cellular organization: All living organism have cellular organization. The cell forms the structural and functional unit of life. • The organisms having only one cell are called unicellular organisms. EX: amoeba, paramecium, euglena etc • The organisms having millions of cells showing organ and organ systems are called multicellular organism. EX: All plants and animals. ’ • Size: The livings organism have definite farm and size.
  9. 9. • Consciousness: All living organisms show response to stimulus. • They have interim relation with surrounding environment.
  10. 10. • Biodiversity : Term used to refer to the number of varieties of plant and animals in region on earth. • Need for classification : living organisms are classified into categories because that could be named, remembered, studied and understood.
  11. 11. • Nomenclature: Binomial nomenclature was first introduced by Carolus Linnaeus. He published the book ‘Systema Naturae’. • The scientific naming of an organism using two words is called Binomial nomenclature. • Each scientific name has two components Generic name + Species name. • Rules for Nomenclature : 1. Latinised names are used. 2. First word is genus, second word is species name. 3. Printed in italics; if handwritten then underline separately. 4. First word starts with capital letter while species name written in small letter. Ex: Mangifera indica.( mango)
  12. 12. • ICBN : International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (for giving scientific name to plants.) • ICZN : International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (for giving scientific name to animals.) • Taxonomy : Study of principles and procedures of classification. • Systematics : It deals with classification of organisms based on their diversities and relationships among them. Term was proposed by Carlous • Taxonomic Hierarchy : It is the arrangement of various taxa of classification • Species → Genus → Family → Order → Class → Phylum (for animals) Division (for plants) →Kingdom
  13. 13. • SPECIES: Group of individuals having fundamental similarities in characteristics and successful reproduction takes place among themselves form a species. •  E.g:Panthera tigris,Panthera leo • Solanum tuberosum, Solanum nigrum. •
  14. 14. • GENUS : • It consists of a group of related species. Genera are aggregates of closely related species. • E.g:Panthera leo ,P pardus (leopard) ,P tigris
  15. 15. • FAMILY • It has a group of related genera. • E.g:family Solanaceae includes genera solanum(tomato,potato) , petunia & datura. • Family Felidae includes genera panthera (lion, tiger ,leopard) &Felis(cat)
  16. 16. • ORDER: • It is the group of families which include a few similar characters. • E.g:order polynomial includes family solanaceae & convovulaceae. • E.g: carnivora includes family felidae & cancidae(dog) .
  17. 17. • CLASS : • It includes all related orders having few similar characters. . • E.g: class mammalia includes order Primata (monkey, gorilla,gibbon) &carnivora. • E.g:class Dicotyledonae includes order polymoniales &sapindales(mango)
  18. 18. • PHYLUM or DIVISION: • It includes related classes having few similar characters. • E.g:phylum Chordata includes classes fish ,amphibia, reptilia, aves &mammalia. • Division angiospermae includes class dicotyledonae & monocotyledonae.
  19. 19. • TAXONOMICAL AIDS: • Taxonomic studies of various species of plants, animals and other organisms require correct classification and identification. • Identification of organisms requires laboratory and field studies. • The other taxonomical aids are, • Herbarium • Botanical Garden • Museum • Zoological Park
  20. 20. • Herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets. • Museums have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens. • Zoological Parks are the places where wild animals are kept in protected under human care. • Key • Key is another taxonomical aid used for identification of plants and animals based on the similarities and dissimilarities.