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The first aid by Dr Aftab Alam


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first aid management in india

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The first aid by Dr Aftab Alam

  1. 1. By Dr. Aftab Alam MBBS
  2. 2. BITESDog bitesBruise, breaks,puncture,cutsWhat to do? Assure ,wash hand. Wash wound with running water(atleast 5min) and soap. Puncture wound-irrigate. Alcohol (40-70%) or betadine. Anti-rabies,(0,3,7,14,28) anti-tetanus serum, antibiotics. Delay suturing. Observe animal.
  3. 3. Snake bite TYPES BITES SYMPTOMS- swelling ,burning ,diarrhea ,blurred vision, numbness, vomiting, fever ,convulsion .What to do? Assure. Apply pressure on bitten area. Bandage around the limb. Immobilize the affected limb. Wash the wound with soap-water or betadine. Lying on one side DONTS-Incise, suck, apply, elevate, cool.
  4. 4. Insect bite WHAT TO DO ? Remove sting. Wash with soap-water. Place ice wrapped in a cloth in every 10 min. Apply antiseptic cream. Take pain killer. Take antihistaminics. Remove rings from finger ,nose, ear. Check for sudden anaphylactic attack.
  5. 5. SPORTS INJURIES Common types of injuries:- sprain, fracture, dislocation. SPRAIN What ? When ? What to do ? Pain killers. Immobilize till heal. Cold compression -20 min 4-8 times. Elevation. Crepe bandage. Remember always start with warming exercise.
  6. 6. DISLOCATION & FRACTURE What ? When ? What to do ? Medical condition? Pain killers. Immobilize the joint. Ice. Splinting in original position. Don’t-massage ,move without support.
  7. 7. CUTS Clean wound with water. Remove debris/dirt . Apply antiseptic ointment. Apply pressure if bleeding don’t stop. Bandage. Take ATT(<5yrs). Consult doctor if –fever ,pus ,healing delayed.
  8. 8. R.T.A. & INJURYsafeguard ,align & immobilize. Fracture ,shock ,sever e bleeding ,heart arrest, Spinal injury. FRACTURE SHOCK & SEVERE BLEEDING. What is shock? What to do ? Lie down, elevate leg. Check breathing ,heart rate, consciousness. Severe bleeding - stop bleeding and shock. Spinal injury & head trauma -align limbs, immobilize spine (carry),check consciousness.
  9. 9. Heart arrest & CPRAssess .Perform CPR.1.Find consciousness ---------------2.Find pulse ----- ----- 3.chest compression ------------4.breathing(htcl) Compression rate -100/min. Compression depth – 2” Compression breathing ratio -30:2.
  10. 10. Burns Categories . What to do ? X First degree. Run cool water. Dry gently. Apply sos /silverex cream. Sterile bandage. Pain killers ,ATT Second degree.(blister & scare) Clean area, apply cream ,pain killers, rehydrate. Third degree. All skin layers, no pain ,dehydration ,eschar severe. CHEMICAL BURNS-wash, ointment, bandage & consult.
  11. 11. Electric shock Save yourself. Switch off main fuse. Move the victim through insulation. Assess victim for pulse & breathing. Treat if minor burn.
  12. 12. FOREIGN BODIES Foreign bodies in ear. If object is protruding use tweezers. If small shake head with ear facing downward with straight canal and with ear bud. If insect --put baby oil in ear &flush with water Foreign bodies in nose Breath through mouth. Blow gently through affected nostril after closing the unaffected nostril. Don’t use tweezers if FB is not protruding.
  13. 13. FOREIGN BODIES IN EYES Avoid rubbing the eyes. Flush with normal saline. Remove by wet cotton bud. If not ,cover the eyes.
  15. 15. NOSE BLEEDING Sit & Lean forward. Pinch nose for 10 min. If not then for another 10 min. Place ice pack on nose bridge. Drink cold water. Don’t sneeze ,suck or lean backward.
  16. 16. COMMON AILMENTS Fever Monitor temperature . Remove excess clothing. Keep in cool place. Plenty fluid . Sponging. Take needed dose of PCM. Don’t give asprin. Consult doc. If!
  17. 17.  Headache Most headaches are treatable. If tension headache take cool shower. Consult doc. If ! Gastric problems. If chronic take DIGENE/Gelusil .Rentac /pantaprozole Timely food. Gastroenteritis. sufficient fluid & ORS. Take carbohydrates . Take PCM if pain. Avoid dairy products.
  18. 18. Oral problems Toothache Remove any food particle or anything lodge between teeth. Take any pain killer. (avoid aspirin) Apply clove oil or benzocain containing antiseptic. Tooth loss. Gently hold the fallen tooth by top. Don’t touch the roots. Rinse the tooth gently (avoid running water) Try to replace tooth in socket. If you cant place in whole milk/your saliva/salt soln.
  19. 19.  Bleeding gum. Apply pressure using ice pack. Mouth rinse- pinch of salt in lukewarm water- twice daily. Massage regularly .Avoid aspirin. Consult DENTIST if bleeding continue.
  20. 20. Poisoning Identify poison. Check for burning around mouth ,breathing difficulty. If unconscious position victim on one side.
  21. 21. Incidents Fainting Make him/her sit down or lie down. Position on back. Clear airway . Elevate feet loose collar or belt. Consult doc. Epilepsy. -assessMake person safe.Lie him/her on one side.Don’t put anything in mouth.
  22. 22.  Anaphylaxis /allergic attack same as fainting, but if breathing difficulty sit up. asthma. Heart attack.