Difference between direct and indirect taxes
DIRECT TAX INDIRECT TAX
A tax is said to be direct ‘when
impact and Incidence of a tax are
on one and same person.
If impact of tax is on one
person and incidence on the
another, the tax is called
Direct tax is imposed on the
individual organisation and
burden of tax cannot be shifted
Indirect tax is imposed on
commodities and allows the
tax burden to shift.
Direct taxes are lesser burden
then indirect taxes to people as
direct taxes are based income
earning ability of people.
Indirect taxes are borne by the
consumers of commodities
and services irrespective of
financial ability as the MRP
includes all taxes.
The administrative cost of
collecting direct taxes is more
and improper administration may
result in tax evasion.
Cost of collecting indirect are
taxes is very less as indirect
taxes are wrapped up in prices
of goods and services and
cannot be evaded
Collected from someone or
Classification of TAXES
• INCOME TAX
• CORPORATION TAX
• PROPERTY TAX
• INHERITANCE TAX
• GIFT TAX
• WEALTH TAX
• CENTRAL EXCISE
• CENTRAL SALES TAX
• CUSTOMS DUTY
• SERVICE TAX
• OCTROI ETC.
• VALUE ADDED TAX (VAT)
• SECURITIES TRANSACTION TAX (STT)
Levy of taxes
• INCOME TAXES(EXCEPT ON AGRICULTURE)
• CUSTOMS DUTY
• EXCISE DUTY (EXCEPT ON LIQUOR)
• TAX ON AGRICULTURE
• EXCISE ON LIQUOR
• BOTH CST AND LST
• MUNICIPAL TAXES
• TAXES ON HOUSE PROPERTY
Concept of Central Sales Tax (CST)
• CST is an indirect tax as the burden falls on consumer
• CST act came into force on 1.7.1957
• This act applies to whole of India, including J&K
• It is levied by Central Government on TAXABLE TURNOVER of Inter-state
sale of goods made by registered dealer in ordinary course of business.
• It is payable in the state in which movement of Goods commences.
• It is assessed, collected and administered by State Government.
CENTRAL SALES TAX ACT-1956
1. There should be A dealer
2. Should be A registered dealer
3. He must carry on any business
4. Sale should take place
5. Sale may be to A regd or unregd buyer
6. The sale should be of goods.
7. The sale can be of also declared goods (goods of specific importance)
8. The sale should take place in course of inter state
9. The sales should not be within the same state.
10. The sale should not be outside India
• DEALER U/S 2(b).
He is A person one who is involved in the activities of buying, selling, distributing the goods
directly or indirectly either for cash or for deferred payment ,for commission ,brokerage etc.
1. Local authorities ,co-operative societies, A company, HUF, association of persons, firms..
2. Suppliers, broker, del creder, commissioner, etc.
3. An auctioneer(govt, agent, etc)
REGISTERED DEALER SEC 7
• A person should register himself u/s 7
• The registration may be:
• VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OR
• COMPULSORY REGISTRATION
• A transfer of goods for money
• Transfer of goods for money’s worth
• Transfer of goods on an agreement to pay on deferred system
• Hire purchase system and installment system.
POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED
• Sale may be to a registered buyer or unregistered buyer.
• Element of price is essential.
• Free supply is not sale.
• Quantity discount is not a sale.
• Mortgage is not a sale.
• Depot transfer is not a sale.
• Goods means any article, thing, commodity, and which is movable
• DOES NOT INCLUDE: Newspapers, actionable Claims, stocks, Shares,
• DECLARED GOODS –SEC2(C)
• Declared goods are goods of special importance.If declared goods are sold
there are certain benefits which can be obtained by the dealer, which is not
available for the ordinary goods.
• Cereals ,Pulses, Coal Including Coke But Not Charcoal, Cotton Waste , Hand
Made Garments, tobacco, Raw Tobacco, Cheroots Of Tobacco ,Jute, Oil Seeds,
Cotton In Unmanufactured Form ,Crude Oil,sugar, khandsare Sugar, Aviation
Turbine Fuel, refused Tobacco, Cigars ,Hides And Skins, Woven Fabrics Of
INTER STATE SALE-SEC 3
• Once the goods are taken out of dealers place then final destination
should be taken into consideration and not the route through which
goods are transferred.
BASIS OF CHARGE
• When all these conditions are satisfied then CST will be levied
AT SPECIFIED RATE ON TAXABLETURNOVER WHICH WILL BE BASED ON
SALES AND NOT ON PROFITS.
Rates of CST
• Form C
The sales tax on inter-state sale is 4% or the applicable sales tax rate for sale within the
State whichever is lower if the sale is to a dealer registered under CST.
• Form D
Sale to government is taxable @ 4% or applicable sales tax rate for sale within the State
whichever is lower.
• Form E1
This form is issued by the dealer who makes the first inter-state sale during movement of
goods from one State to another.
• Form E2
This form is issued by the second or the subsequent seller when the goods move from one
state to another in a series of inter-state sales by transfer of documents of title.
• Form F
This form is issued when goods are dispatched to another state as a consignment or to the
branch of a dealer in another State. The CST is not payable if there is only inter-state stock
transfer and there is no sale.
• Form H
This form is issued by an exporter for purchase of goods. The purchase of goods is for an
export order or in pursuance of an export order.
• Form I
This form is issued by a dealer located in a Special Economic Zone (SEZ). No CST is levied
when sales is made to a dealer located in SEZ.
Price or value of Goods Sold XXX
Less: Goods rejected/ Returns XX
Net Sales XXX
Insurance charges at request of Buyer
Transportation and Freight charges
Central Excise Duty
Insurance charges (borne by seller)
Aggregate Sale Price XXX
Less: CST (Aggregation of Sale price x Rate of tax / 100+Rate of Tax XX
Taxable turn Over XXX
Value Added Tax
• The value added tax was introduced as an indirect tax into the Indian
taxation system from 1 April 2005.
• The existing General Sales Tax Laws were replaced with new Value
Added Tax Acts .
• VAT is a tax, which is charged on the “Increase in Value” of good and
services at each stage of production and circulation.
• It is charged by registered VAT businesses
Rate of TAX (VAT)
• Rate of Tax:
Schedule ‘A’ – Essential Commodities (Tax free)- Nil
Schedule ‘B’ – Gold, Silver, Precious Stones, Pearls etc. - 1%
Schedule ‘C' – Declared Goods and other specified goods - 4% Other
goods w.e.f. 1/5/10 - 5%
Schedule ‘D’ – Foreign Liquor, Country Liquor, Motor Spirits, etc. - At
Schedule ‘E’ – All other goods (not covered by A to D) - 12.5%
Calculation of VAT
Calculation of VAT (tax @10%) Amount
Purchase price 200
Tax paid during purchase (Rs. 20 [input tax]—10% on 200)
Selling price 250
Tax collected on resale (Rs. 25[output tax]—10% on 250)
VAT payable (Output tax – Input Tax) Rs. 5 (25-20)
Total tax collected by the Government
At the time of purchase by the dealer----Rs. 20
At the time of resale by the dealer---------Rs. 05
CENTRAL EXCISE ACT
• The law of Central Excise duties is governed by the
• Central Excise Act 1994
• Central Excise tariff Act 1985
• Central Excise Rules ,1944
• Central Excise Act ,1994
• This is the basic law related to the levy and collection of duties of
central excise. However this Act does not contain the rate at which
duties are imposed.
• Central Excise Tariff Act ,1985
• This Act classifies various goods on which central excise duties are
levied and prescribes the rates at which the duty is payable.
• Central Excise Rules ,1944
• All manufacturers of excisable goods are required to register under
these rules .The registration is valid as long as production activity
continues and no renewals are necessary
Taxable event for central excise duty
Taxable event for charge of duty of central excise is the manufacturer or
production of goods in India.
In this context ,the Supreme Court has observed:
Excise duty is not directly on the goods, but manufactured thereof. Though both
excise duty and sales duty levied with reference to goods, the two are very different
In one case, the imposition is on the act of manufactured or production, while in the
other it is on the act of sale.
Liability for central excise
For condition must be present for the
charge of central excise duty:
1. 1.The duty is on goods
2. 2.The goods must be excisable
3. 3 .The goods must be manufactured or produced
4. 4.Such manufacture or production must be take place in India
For an item to be considered goods for the purpose of the levy of
central excise duty ,it must satisfy two requirements:
Goods must be movable. Duty cannot be levied on immovable property
.Central excise duty cannot imposed on plant and machinery
Goods must be marketable .The goods must be known in the market and must
be capable of being bought or sold
For the liability of duty of central excise to arise, the item in question
should not only be goods it should also be excisable goods.
A goods become excisable if and only if it is mentioned in the Central
Excise Tariff Act 1985
3.Goods must be manufactured or produced
The third condition that must be satisfied for becoming liable to pay duties of
central excise is that the goods must be manufactured or produced.
4. Manufactured or production must in India
Finally ,for the liability to pay central excise duty to arise the goods must
be manufactured or produced in India.
5. Who is liable to pay central excise duties?
The central excise duty is a tax on manufacture or production of goods.
Hence, the liability to pay excise duty lies on manufacturer or the producer
Basis for valuation of goods
1. Specific duty
2. Tariff duty
3. Maximum retail price
4. Ad -valorem basis
Basis for valuation of goods
The duty of central excise is charged on four bases:
• 1.Specific duty
• 2.Tariff duty
• 3.Maximum retail price
• 4.ad -valorem basis
• It is the duty payable on the basis of some physical feature of the
product unit like weight, length, volume, thickness, etc.
• Some of the goods on which duty is charged on the basis are as follows
Matches Box of 100
Cement Per tonne
1. The government has the power to declare a value on the basis of
which duty of central excise will be charged.
2. When the government declare the value, the duty is charged on the
value and the actual value of the goods is ignored.
3.MRP –based valuation
Some manufactures had started the practice of central excise by resorting to
some questionable practices. In order to check these malpractices, a new basis
of valuation was introduced, that is, the maximum retail price(MRP)-based
E.g.: television sets, DVD players, Cosmetics, Toilet preparations and chocolates
4.Ad Valorem duty
The first three bases of valuation are applied for only a few goods. In a large
majority of cases the duty of central excise is payable on the basis of the value of
the goods, called the assessable value.
Meaning of customs duty
1. Duty or tax, which is levied by central govt.
2. Collected from the importer or exporter of goods.
3. Duties are usually “ad –valorem rates”
4. “Ad –valorem rates”
5. Duty as a percentage of the value of goods
Scope and coverage of customs
1. Basic act for levy and collection of customs duty.
2. Contain various provisions relating to imports and exports of
goods and merchandize as well as baggage of persons.
3. The main purpose of customs act, 1962.
4. Prevention of illegal imports and exports.
5. The act extends to the whole of the India.
6. Two acts.
1. The customs act, 1962
2. The customs tariff act, 1975
Objects of customs duty
• The customs duty is levied, primarily, for the following
1. To raise revenue.
2. To regulate imports of foreign goods into India.
3. To conserve foreign exchange, regulate supply of goods
into domestic market.
4. To provide protection to the domestic industry from foreign
competition by restricting import of selected goods and
services, import licensing, import quotas, and outright