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Interviewing skills 4 students

  1. 1. The Art of InterviewingSoft Skills UnitPresented by: Basma A. Gaafar, MSc.Ministry of Communicationsand Information TechnologyInformation TechnologyInstitute
  2. 2. Course Outline• HRM Activities – Recruitment• HRM Activities – Selection and Placement• CV Writing• Interviewing Skills• Tips and Tricks 4 Interviewers• Tips and Tricks 4 Interviewees
  3. 3. Getting the Right PeopleRecruitment
  4. 4. Labor Market ComponentsLabor Force PopulationApplicant PopulationApplicant PoolIndividualsSelected
  5. 5. Effective Recruiting Ad
  6. 6. Selection and Placement
  7. 7. HRM Activities• SelectingValid selection technique▫ Interviews▫ Work simulation▫ Written tests▫ Background and reference checks▫ Physical examinations▫ Work samplingGetting the Right People
  8. 8. Selection Process Flow Chart
  9. 9. Selection Process Flow Chart
  10. 10. Selection1: Applicant Job InterestRealistic Job Preview▫ The process through which a job applicant receives an accuratepicture of the organizational realities of the job.▫ Prevents the development of unrealistic job expectations that causedisenchantment, dissatisfaction, and turnover in new employees.
  11. 11. Selection Process Flow Chart
  12. 12. Selection2: Pre-Employment Screening• Pre-screening interview (Phone Interview)▫ Verify minimum qualifications• Electronic pre-screening▫ Scanning résumés and applications
  13. 13. Selection Process Flow Chart
  14. 14. Selection3: Application Forms• Purposes of Applications▫ Record of applicant’s interest in the job▫ Provides a profile of the applicant▫ Basic record for applicants who are hired▫ Research effectiveness of the selection process• Applications should not contain illegal (non job-related)questions concerning:▫ Marital status▫ Height/weight▫ Number and ages of dependents▫ Information on spouse▫ Date of high school graduation▫ Contact in case of emergency
  15. 15. Application Disclaimers and Notices• Employment-at-will• References contacts• Employment testing• Application time limits• Information Falsification
  16. 16. Application Disclaimers and NoticesEmployment-at-willIndicates the right of the employer or employee to terminate theemployment relationship at any time with or without notice or cause.
  17. 17. Application Disclaimers and NoticesReferences contactsObtains applicant’s permission to contact references.
  18. 18. Application Disclaimers and NoticesEmployment testingNotifies applicants of required drug tests, physical exams, or other tests.
  19. 19. Application Disclaimers and NoticesApplication time limitsIndicates how long the application will remain active.
  20. 20. Application Disclaimers and NoticesInformation FalsificationIndicates that false information is ground for termination.
  21. 21. Selection Process Flow Chart
  22. 22. Selection4: Employment InterviewFormats of interviews:• Unstructured interview: no predetermined script or protocol.Questions are not prepared in advance, interviewees may not be asked thesame questions. (Do you think this is fair?)• Structured interview: it is more valid and reliable, it includesorganized questions. (It eliminates bias by the interviewer)
  23. 23. Selection Process Flow Chart
  24. 24. Selection5: Employment TestsThe type of test to be used will depend on:1. Budgetary constraints2. Complexity & difficulty of the job3. Size and quality of applicant population4. Knowledge, skills, abilities required by the job
  25. 25. Ability Tests• Cognitive Ability Tests• Physical Ability Tests• Psychomotor Tests• Work Sample Tests• Assessment Centers
  26. 26. Selection Process Flow Chart
  27. 27. Selection6: Reference checks & Recommendations• Do you think if you ask for a reference letter, your employer will giveyou a negative one to hand in?• Of course not. You usually ask those who favor you. Thus this abiased tool.
  28. 28. Selection Process Flow Chart
  29. 29. Selection7: Physical ExaminationPhysical examinations can be used to screen out unqualifiedindividuals, such as:• Hepatitis C test (PCR)• AIDS• Drug testing
  30. 30. Selection Process Flow Chart
  31. 31. Selection8: Placement• Placement▫ Fitting a person to the right job.• Person-job fit▫ Matching the knowledge, skills and abilities of people to thecharacteristics of jobs (tasks, duties and responsibilities).▫ Benefits of person-job fit Higher employee performance Lower turnover and absenteeismKSAs = TDRs = Job Success?
  32. 32. Person-Organization Fit
  33. 33. CV Writing
  34. 34. CV Writing• A CV or Curriculum Vitae is:Your Life HistoryYour Job HistoryYour AchievementsYour Skills• A CV is a marketing tool.• A CV is an essential tool in your job search. When applyingfor a vacancy you generally first have to send your CV topresent yourself to the prospective employer.
  35. 35. CV Sections• Contact information:Name and SurnameLocal addressE-mail addressPhone number• Skills Summary• Career Objective/Personal Profile• Education• Honors, Awards or Accomplishments• Work / Professional Experience• Extracurricular Activities/Interests• References
  36. 36. Styles of CVs• Chronological CV• Functional CV• Combination CV• Targeted CV• Inventory CV
  37. 37. Weakness in your CV• Employment Gaps (Out-of-work/fired)• Career move• Job experience (Fresher/overqualified)• Career objective CV• No degree CV• Too young CV• CV criminal record
  38. 38. your CV = an interesting introduction document• A new CV for each job• Mention your best + points• Collect enough information about the company• Be ware of the Market Trends• Use key aspects• CV easy to read and short• Highlight your added value to the job and company
  39. 39. How to improve your CV?• Use bullets rather paragraphs• List information based on relevancy to the employer• Don’t overuse the Technology Terms• Be sure to format your CV properly• Emphasize your abilities• CV length• Include a Profile/Objectives• Vocab. should be achievement driven
  40. 40. Interviewing Skills
  41. 41. Basic Features of Interviews• An interview▫ A procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oralresponses to oral inquiries• Types of interviews▫ Selection interview▫ Appraisal interview▫ Exit interview• Interviews formats▫ Structured▫ Unstructured
  42. 42. Types of Interviews• Selection / Screening interview▫ A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on thebasis of applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries.• Appraisal interview▫ A discussion, following a performance appraisal, in which supervisor andemployee discuss the employee’s rating and possible remedial actions.• Exit interview▫ An interview to elicit information about the job or related matters to theemployer providing some insight into what’s right or wrong about thefirm.
  43. 43. Formats of Interviews• Structured interview▫ An interview following a set sequence of standardized questions asked toall job applicants.▫ Useful for initial screening and comparisons.▫ An interview in which the applicant is interviewed sequentially by severalpersons; each rates the applicant on a standard form.• Unstructured / nondirective interview▫ An unstructured conversational-style interview in which the interviewerpursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions.▫ An interview in which each interviewer forms an independent opinionafter asking different questions.
  44. 44. Types of Selection Interviews
  45. 45. Interview Content: Types of Questions• Situational Interview▫ A series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate wouldbehave in a given situation. Applicants respond to hypothetical situationsthey might encounter on the job for which they applied to.• Behavioral Interview▫ A series of job-related questions that focus on how they reacted to actualsituations in the past. Asking applicants to relate actual incidents fromtheir past relevant work experience to the job for which they are applying.• Job-related Interview▫ A series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-relatedbehaviors.
  46. 46. Interview Content: Types of Questions• Stress Interview▫ An interview in which the interviewer seeks to make the applicantuncomfortable with occasionally rude questions that supposedly to spotsensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance.• Puzzle questions▫ Recruiters for technical, finance, and other types of jobs use questions topose problems requiring unique (“out-of-the-box”) solutions to see howcandidates think under pressure.
  47. 47. More types of Interviews• Panel (Board) Interview▫ An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant.• Mass Interview / Group Discussions▫ A panel interviews several candidates simultaneously. Sometimescandidates are left with a certain topic to discuss as a GROUP while beingmonitored/coached by interviewer(s).• Computerized selection Interview▫ An interview in which a job candidate’s oral and/or computerized repliesare obtained in response to computerized oral, visual, or writtenquestions and/or situations.
  48. 48. How to Conduct an Effective Interview• Structure your interview:Step 1: Job AnalysisStep 2: Rate the Job’s Main DutiesStep 3: Create Interview QuestionsStep 4: Create Benchmark AnswersStep 5: Appoint the Interview Panel and Conduct Interviews
  49. 49. How to Conduct an Effective Interview (cont’d)• Plan the interview:▫ Secure a private room to minimize interruptions.▫ Review candidate’s application form and résumé.▫ Note any areas that are vague, or areas of strength or weaknesses.▫ Review the job specification.▫ Plan to start with a clear picture of the traits of an ideal candidate.
  50. 50. How to Conduct an Effective Interview (cont’d)• Establish rapport:▫ Find out about the applicant, by putting the applicant at ease.▫ Ask her/im a non-controversial question: How was the traffic this morning?▫ Not because you have to act in a human way but because yourorganizations reputation is at stake.▫ Be aware of the applicant’s status, what if he is unemployed, puthim at ease, why?
  51. 51. How to Conduct an Effective Interview (cont’d)• Ask questions:▫ Structured job-oriented questions.▫ Don’t put words in the applicants mouth.▫ Don’t interrogate the applicant, he is not a criminal.▫ Ask open-ended questions, to let the applicant express his thoughtsfully.▫ Don’t ask questions that can be answered yes or no.▫ If you ask about his accomplishments ask for examples.
  52. 52. How to Conduct an Effective Interview (cont’d)• Close the interview:▫ Leave time to answer any questions from her/is side.▫ Also state if the applicant will be considered or not. If stillundecided you should say.• Review the interview:▫ Once the candidate leaves, review your interview notes while it isfresh in your mind. to avoid snap judgments later on or negativeemphasis.▫ Some interviewers videotape interviews, however this makes thecandidate restless.
  53. 53. Factors Affecting Interviews• Misunderstanding of the job• Pressure to hire• First impressions / Snap judgments• Candidate-Order (contrast) error• Influence of Nonverbal behavior and impression management• Negative emphasis• Effect of personal characteristics: attractiveness, gender, race• Telegraphing• Too much/Too little talking• Playing district attorney or psychologist
  54. 54. Tips and Tricks4 INTERVIEWERS“Practice makes Perfect”
  55. 55. For Interviewers BEFORE• Plan for the ENTIRE selection process BEFORE you start interviewing.• Plan the interview in advance by:▫ reading the résumé carefully, identifying points that need discussion and probing,▫ and by planning technical questions (questions that test how well the candidate can dothe job at hand). Use the candidate’s résumé and the job description as a guide.• A second interview is always advised. Make sure you discuss with the firstinterviewer.• If you are interviewing jointly with another person, make sure you discuss andagree on each others roles and who is to cover which part of the interview- theworst thing you can do is appear disorganized.
  56. 56. For Interviewers - Evaluating Résumés• The résumé and the interview are two of the most important tools in the evaluationand hiring process for any position.• It is also important to differentiate between:▫ Screening a résumé to decide whether the candidate at hand is worth interviewing or not,▫ and studying the résumé to decide on what questions to ask that person.• The average time spent looking over a résumé the first time round is less than 10seconds!• To save time you have to be experienced at reviewing résumés. Even if you are not,practice makes perfect.• To make résumé review time efficient try to review all these things in one review.
  57. 57. For Interviewers - Evaluating Résumés (cont’d)• Things to consider when looking at a résumé for the first time:▫ Its general layout - Is it organized?▫ Is it comfortable to the eye?▫ Look for neatness and logical organization of the sections in a résumé.▫ Does the candidate observe consistency in the choice of fonts throughout the résumé?▫ Are all the bulleted points the same?▫ You also need to pick out any spelling mistakes.• Starting with the first item “Identification data”:• Name, and Contact information. This information should be very clear.• Does the candidate list an email address? If yes, then s/he is up-to-date.• The next thing you should see is the “Career Objective”, which is very important.
  58. 58. For Interviewers - Evaluating Résumés (cont’d)• Moving on to the body of the résumé, quickly scan a candidates “Education” (freshgraduate) or “Work Experience”, and look for Major, Field of study, AcademicInstitution, and Grades.• Look at the consistency:▫ Does the candidate always start with the name of the School/University or the Degree.▫ Does s/he mix and match, depending on what s/he wants to highlight?▫ Notice whether s/he starts with the Job Title once, and the Company another time.• If the person has listed some of the Coursework s/he has done, quickly scan to seewhether it is in keeping with the Objective or not.• Does the “Work Experience” section read like a job description that could beapplicable to anyone doing this job?
  59. 59. For Interviewers - Evaluating Résumés (cont’d)• Does the person use "participate" every time s/he wants to say s/he did something;is "responsible for" the opening phrase for the majority of the items in the “WorkExperience” section?• You should be looking for your industrys buzzwords.• While going through the résumé, you should be checking to see if a résumé has thequalifications you require. Some résumés may not contain the exact requirementsthat you had set but may still fit the job.• At the end of this task you should have screened your stack of résumés and decidedwho is worth an interview and who is getting a "thanks, but no thanks" letter. Youwill also probably have a maybe pile (people you dont feel comfortable excluding right away,but who dont make the grade right away).
  60. 60. For Interviewers - Preparing the Questions• Since candidates must be judged on their responses, give them questions that willdemonstrate fully their skills, abilities, interests and motivation for the job.▫ The candidate’s career objective.▫ The nature of the candidate’s work.▫ Education and experience.▫ The reason for changing jobs.▫ The relationship between the candidate and the candidate’s current co-workers, currentboss.▫ The most unpleasant feature of the candidate’s current job▫ Work habits.▫ The candidate’s knowledge about your organization.▫ The reason why the candidate wants to work here.▫ Be sure to ask the candidate at the end…"Is there anything else you would like to add that would help us to evaluate you as acandidate?”
  61. 61. For Interviewers DURING• Do not keep the candidate waiting. If you must be late, be sure you apologize to thecandidate for keeping her/im waiting.• Interview in a quiet environment, free of interruptions. Don’t answer your mobileand don’t send messages!• Start with broad open-ended questions or simply invitations to talk.• Move the interview along with responsive questions and statements that basicallytell the character to keep talking.• Let the candidate do most of the talking. Don’t offer to repeat/rephrase a questionunless the candidate asks you to.• Good questioning helps the candidate perform well. Poor, unorganized or unfairquestioning will prevent the candidate from showing their good qualities/skills.
  62. 62. For Interviewers DURING (cont’d)• Reveal more of the candidate by asking open –ended questions like: How didyou…? Why did you…? Tell me about…?• Listen and respond to what the candidate says in an interested fashion, as if it werea conversation.• Ask specific, direct questions to elicit the information you need that the open-ended questions don’t produce.• Confirm with the candidate that you have understood what s/he meant.• Take some, but not too many notes of candidates answers. Writing too muchduring the interview can distract the candidate.• Maintain eye contact!
  63. 63. For Interviewers DURING (cont’d)• Do not sit in silent judgment over the candidate. No matter how bad a candidatemay be, make the effort to appear interested and ask questions.• Help establish rapport by giving feedback and summing up with a positiveexpression.• Don’t feel the need to fill the long, awkward pause.• Tell the candidate about the job and the company in a positive manner. Be honestabout how demanding the job and environment may be, but don’t scare thecandidate away!• Ask for documentation.• Do not offer the candidate the job during the interview, no matter how tempting itmay be!
  64. 64. For Interviewers AFTER• Evaluate to what extent the candidate demonstrated that s/he is the best fit for thejob.• Document the interview using an evaluation form.• Take an overall look at the candidate, and take all the selection tools used intoconsideration (interviews, tests, presentations, etc).• Develop a scoring scheme for the results. Ratings are the best aid for the finalselection decision. However, numbers don’t make decisions, people do.• Review your notes right after the interview.• Make the final decision as soon as possible after the last interview/step in theselection process. This will ensure that the information is fresh in your mind, andwill ensure a fairer judgment.
  65. 65. Summary Tips for Interviewers• Plan the interview by reviewing the candidate and the job specifications.• Establish rapport with a friendly greeting and start with a non-job question.• Follow structured set of questions, and avoid questions that require a simple yes or no.• Try not to telegraph, or give cues for, the desired answer.• Make sure the candidate has plenty of time to answer—do not monopolize the conversation.• Listen carefully and paraphrase key candidate answers, to be sure you understand what theymeant.• Ask for specific, not general, examples of the candidate’s experience and accomplishments.• Leave time at the end of the interview to answer questions from the candidate.• At the close make sure the candidate knows what the next steps are and approximate timing.• After the candidate leaves, review your notes and highlight important points while they arefresh in your mind.
  66. 66. Tips and Tricks4 INTERVIEWEES“First Impressions are important”
  67. 67. Days Before the Interview• Draw a line down the center of a piece of paper. On the left side, make a bulleted list ofwhat the employer is looking for based on the job posting. On the right side, make abulleted list of the qualities you possess that fit those requirements.• Research the company, the industry and the competition.• Prepare your 60-second personal statement — your answer to the “tell me about yourself”question.• Write at least five success stories to answer behavioral interview questions (“Tell me abouta time when…” or “Give me an example of a time…”).• List five questions to ask the interviewer about the job, the company and the industry.• Research salary data to determine your worth.• Determine your salary needs based on your living expenses.• Get permission from your references to use their names.
  68. 68. Your Homework BEFORE• If an interview has been set, you should know the following about your POTENTIALEMPLOYER:Name of the employer (company name),Find out as much as you can about the job (Analyze the job description),Try and work out what sort of person is required and match that to your own strengths and skills.• This information can be found using many sources, such as:Business directories , listings , and Company websites,Company profiles can also be found in their annual reports.You could also speak to friends, relatives and acquaintances that are working,Call up the company and speak to their corporate communication or human resource department.• Some questions you can ask :Nature of business,where they are based or where are their headquarters,What are their main products/services.
  69. 69. For Interviewees BEFORE• The second job talk is often easier than the first, and so some people suggest thatyou should go to a job talk “just for the experience.”• At least drop an email to see whether the company has any interest in you beforewasting their time and yours with a full application.• Know where you are applying. Your cover letter should reflect some knowledge ofwhere you are applying and why you think you would fit in.• On electronic applications, remember the text of the email really does matter.• Customize your résumé. You may qualify to work in various industries. Tailor yourrésumé accordingly for each.• Spell-check! Seriously.
  70. 70. For Interviewees BEFORE (cont’d)• Follow standard format. There are a variety of résumé formats and you canprobably follow any of them. New grads should emphasize education and gradesfirst.• Make it easy to read. Even while following standard format, there are a number ofways you can make your résumé easy to read including using bullet points ortables.• Be brief. One page for a recent college graduate is sufficient.• Use the right terminology. Do use industry terms but dont be too academic withlingo.• Stick to the file format. If a company asks for your résumé in a specific formatand/or provided by a particular method of delivery, then comply.
  71. 71. For Interviewees BEFORE (cont’d)• If you send your document in Word, be sure that it is “clean,” and doesn’t includetracked changes. If you want to be safer, just turn it in as a PDF.• Who writes your letters matters.• If you are switching to (or back to) academia, get some coaching. A killer résumé inthe context of your industry may not translate neatly to an academic hiringcommittee, even if your professional experience is desirable.• Watch your web image.• If you are applying for a job in interactive media, you shouldn’t have web pages thatlook like they were done by the least able undergraduates.
  72. 72. For Interviewees BEFORE (cont’d)• Practice… Practice… Practice...• Know about the job and the company.• Make sure you know your own résumé!• Don’t lie on your résumé. Keep it real.• Come prepared with a few really good questions of your own.• Before going for the interview read the newspaper for the day!• what and how you eat is also important! Have a light meal.• Have references ready. Have two or three references printed on a separate sheet ofpaper and only provide them when asked for. Professors that know you well mightbe ideal candidates.
  73. 73. For Interviewees BEFORE/DURING• Be sure to place the important documents, references and information in apresentable well-organized folder. A folder with clear plastic sheets is handy andyou can display all your certificates nicely without having to take them in and out ofan envelope.• Some applicants bring their documents and references rolled up or all crumpledand folded - this creates an impression of a disorganized person.• Make it easy for you display all your documents easily to your prospectiveemployer.• Carry the folder in a presentable briefcase that makes you look professional.• Avoid shopping and travel bags.
  74. 74. For Interviewees BEFORE/DURING (cont’d)Time and Place of InterviewIf necessary, check a street directory on the exact location of the building and the location ofthe stopping points of the public transportation system nearest to the place of interview.AttirePlan what you are going to wear the day before the interview.▫ Ensure your clothes are clean, fresh and well pressed.▫ Take cues from others you know in that profession or sector. It is better and safer to beslightly conservative.▫ Ensure you appear fresh and relaxed.▫ Both Men and Women should wear shoes that look good, but that are comfortable at theend of the day.
  75. 75. For Interviewees BEFORE/DURING (cont’d)Attire (cont’d)• For MEN:▫ For Senior Appointment always wear a full suit.▫ A conservative simple tie, a well pressed long sleeve shirt and dark trousers.▫ with a polished conservative dress shoes.▫ If you wear aftershave , choose something with a light fragrance.• For WOMEN:▫ A dark jacket with a plain or light pastel shade blouse always gives a professionalappearance.▫ Skirts / Pants should be of appropriate length , and a small pair of heels.▫ Jewelry and accessories must not be distracting to the interviewer.▫ Avoid clothing that is ill-fitting, revealing, casual or unprofessional.▫ Ensure your hair is properly combed or brushed.▫ If you wear perfume, choose something with a light fragrance; avoid anything that is‘overpowering’.▫ light make-up is permitted.
  76. 76. For Interviewees DURING• Interview begins the minute you leave home. Instead of dressing comfortably, youshould dress respectfully.• Make sure that your overall appearance (hair style, clothing, makeup, and so on)match the nature of the business and culture of the company.• Carry all of your presentation materials, if any, with you.• Always bring an additional copy of your résumé with you.• Be friendly. Greet the receptionist and anyone that talks to you before theinterview. Thank them for any assistance.• Dont smoke. At least not on the premises. You dont want to smell of smoke.• Turn off your cell phone. And take out any Bluetooth earpiece you might bewearing.
  77. 77. For Interviewees DURING (cont’d)• Wait for the handshake. The rules of a handshake have changed as more womenhave entered the workforce. Normally, two men should shake firmly. Beyond that,youll have to use your judgment. Dont crush a persons hand. Practice with maleand female friends.• Smile and provide a warm greeting and firm handshake if the interviewer extendsher/is hand.• Keep standing. Don’t sit until you are directed to. There may be other peopleparticipating in the interview and its best to show that you are "open to direction.”• Sit up straight.
  78. 78. For Interviewees DURING (cont’d)• Remember to keep calm; don’t be nervous it is only an interview.• Your résumé counts for a lot but an interviewer wants to hear from you whatexperience you have and what you have to offer their company.• Show you understand the job you’re interviewing for and have the skills.• Be confident in who you are and what you have to offer.• Be yourself!• Look the interviewer in the eyes.• Nod your head.
  79. 79. For Interviewees DURING (cont’d)• Relax.• Listen! More than anything else.• Answer interviewer’s questions, and with answers not questions.• Take your time before answering; you do not need to begin talking the instant theinterviewer ask a question.• Don’t forget to smile.• Be interesting.
  80. 80. For Interviewees DURING (cont’d)• Tell a good story.• Watch your nonverbal behavior to ensure that you maintain good eye contact andconvey enthusiasm without being overly expressive with your hands or other bodymovements.• Ask for the job. If the interview goes well and you think you want to work there, askfor the job.• When the interview is over… Stand up, Smile, Thank them, and Shake hands if itfeels appropriate.• Follow up on each interview. Experts offer differing opinions on this. If in doubt,call reception and ask their suggestions, especially if you havent heard back withintwo weeks.
  81. 81. For Interviewees DURING/AFTER• If you get an offer, Negotiate.• If the offer is still too low, and they cannot go higher, they may be willing to offerother things. Make sure that you receive written specific confirmation .• Send a follow-up letter (A Thank you letter/notes).
  82. 82. Questions that you might be asked• Which of our courses are you qualified to teach?• What research do you do?• Where else are you interviewing?• Where do you see yourself in 5 - 10 years?• What does your spouse do?• What skills you have and to review your job function at your last place ofemployment?• Why you are leaving or why you have left?
  83. 83. Questions that you might be asked (cont’d)• Tell me a little about yourself?• What is your major strength?• What is your major weakness?• How do you deal with conflict?• How do you deal with authority?• Other Questions:▫ How will your personality fit in?▫ What have you learned from your mistakes?▫ What do you know about us?
  84. 84. Illegal Questions…Whats the right answer?Various local laws regulate the questions a prospective employer can ask you. An employersquestions-on the job application, in the interview, or during the testing process- must berelated to the job you are applying for.You have 3 Options for answering:• You are free to answer the question-but if you choose to do so, realizethat you are giving information that is not job related.• You can refuse to answer the question.• Your third option is to examine the intent behind the question andrespond with an answer as it might apply to the job.
  85. 85. Some Illegal QuestionsInquiry Area Illegal Questions Legal QuestionsNational Origin/ Citizenship Area you a X citizen?Where were you born?What is your “native tongue?”Are you authorized to work in the country?What languages do you read, speak, or writefluently? (As long as it pertains to the job inquestion)Age How old are you?What is your date of birth?Are you over the age of 21?Marital Status/ Family What’s your marital status?Who do you live with?Do you plan to have a family? When?How many kids do you have?What are your childcare arrangements?Would you be willing to relocate if necessary?Travel is an important part of the job. Would yoube able and willing to travel as needed by thejob? (As long as all applicants for the job areasked it.)Are you able to work overtime as the jobrequires it? (Again, only as long as all applicantsfor the job are asked it.)Affiliations What clubs or social organizations do you belong to? List any professional, trade groups or otherorganizations that you belong to that youconsider relevant to your ability to perform thisjob.Disabilities Do you have any disabilities?Please complete the following medical history.Have you had any recent of past illnesses or operations? Ifyes, please give dates.What was the date of your last physical exam?How’s your family’s health?When did you lose your eyesight? How?Are you able to perform the essential duties ofthis job with or without reasonableaccommodation?Can you demonstrate how you perform thefollowing job related function?As part of the hiring process, after you have beenoffered a contract, you will be required toundergo a medical exam.
  86. 86. Interviewing do’s and don’ts• DO• Arrive on time or few minutes early.• Dress neatly and formally.• Be polite (but not overly or insincerely so) to everyone in the office.• Act confident, But not overconfident.• Give the appearance of energy as you walk.• Smile!• Greet the interviewer by last name if you are sure of the pronunciation. If not, askthe employer to repeat it.• Shake Hands Firmly and Stand until offered a chair, sit upright and lookinterested.
  87. 87. Interviewing do’s and don’ts (cont’d)• DO (cont’d)• Look a prospective employer in the eye while speaking.• If presented with an application, do fill it out neatly and completely.• Listen carefully; it will help you see how you fit in, and how best to answer.• Take a pause and think before you answer questions. Be fluent.• Make sure that your good point comes across to the interviewer in a factual,sincere manner. Stress your achievements.• Always conduct yourself as if you are determined to get the job .• Answer questions truthfully, frankly, and briefly.• Thank the employer for interviewing you.
  88. 88. Interviewing do’s and don’ts (cont’d)• DON’T• Be overdressed. For women: wear only light perfume, make up, and jewelry.• Forget to bring a copy of your résumé!• Smoke or chew gum, even if the interviewer does and offers you either.• Move around (looking at your watch. Run hands through your hair).• Answer with a simple “yes” or “no”. Don’t over –answer questions or talk toomuch either. Explain suitably and briefly.• Make offensive remarks about your present or former employers and co-workers.• Mention other companies that turned you down.• Inquire about salary, Vacations, etc. During the first interview unless you are surethe employer is interested in hiring you.
  89. 89. Interviewing do’s and don’ts (cont’d)• DON’T (cont’d)• Ask about salary benefits first. Let the interviewer bring it up.• Fidget. Its often perceived as a sign of untrustworthiness.• Mumble. Speak clearly and pronounce your words. This should be part of yourpre-interview practice with friends.• Be intimidated. Be confident without being arrogant.• Lie in the interview. A skilled interviewer can "read" an applicant.• Show off or overact. Just be yourself, but dont be overly effusive.• Hit on your interviewer. Seriously, youre in an interview, not a nightclub.• Complain about someone. Be positive.• Put anything on the interviewer’s desk.
  90. 90. Interviewing do’s and don’ts (cont’d)• DON’T (cont’d)• Use the interviewer’s first name unless asked.• Take anyone with you to the interview.• Apologize for lack of experience or training; stress your strong points instead.• Ask to use the company telephone.• Mention influential friends or acquaintances in the organization.• Try to be very funny.• Make elaborate promises.• Dont seem needy. Sure, you need a job, but if you act like it, you probably wontget it.• Hang around after the interview.
  91. 91. When You are HIRED…Things to …• YOU need to stand up to your promises.• YOU should always be putting 110% effort.• In every job YOU accept, make YOURSELF shine.• Regardless of how much YOU are paid or how much responsibility and work youare given, take the initiative to do more.• The more YOU are prepared to do for your job, the future each of your jobs willtake you.Don’t worry about being rewarded,just keep working hard,and it will pay off.
  92. 92. ReferencesTHANK YOUand …BEST of LUCKhttp://www.careermideast.com/http://www.umt.edu/career/http://www.expertvillage.com/http://www.youtube.com/http://www.cvtips.com“The Definitive Book of Body Language” by Allan and Barbara PEASE.

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