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Conflict management

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Conflict management

  1. 1. Conflict Management ● Based on the lectures on “The art of Conflict Management” by Michael Dues, the teaching Company
  2. 2. Understanding ConflictUnderstanding Conflict
  3. 3. What is a conflict? ● “An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals.” ● Or Simply: “discomforting difference.”
  4. 4. Elements of Conflict ● Interdependence
  5. 5. Elements of Conflict ● Difference
  6. 6. Elements of Conflict ● Opposition
  7. 7. Elements of Conflict ● Expression
  8. 8. Elements of Conflict ● Emotion
  9. 9. Conflict may be useful! ● Bringing to the surface, problems that were not clear before
  10. 10. Most conflicts rise on how to reach the goal not on the goal itself
  11. 11. To reach win-win resolution ... ● Identify common goals
  12. 12. To reach win-win resolution ... Treat conflicts as a challenges that you can work on together to achieve a solution for both.
  13. 13. Perhaps our greatest limitation in working toward win-win solutions is that each of us comes to the table with deep-seated ideas about conflict and powerfully ingrained strategies.
  14. 14. Conflict does not arise so much from a difference itself but from the perception we have of that difference
  15. 15. To reduce conflict ... Try to see situation from the other person's perspective
  16. 16. Almost all of us tend to attribute mistakes or failings on our part to external events
  17. 17. ... but we also tend to attribute the behavior of others to their own character or emotions
  18. 18. We’re really emotional beings who have evolved an ability to reason that helps us deal with our emotions.
  19. 19. Remember that emotion is an internal fact; it’s a response to perceptions you are having
  20. 20. Being angry is not the same as acting on your anger
  21. 21. Power How Much We Need and How to Use It?
  22. 22. What is Power? ● Power can be defined as the ability to cause or influence an outcome.
  23. 23. What is Power? ● Notice the difference between “influence” and “control”!
  24. 24. Kinds of Power ● Personal power, such as talents, skills, or knowledge that we may have;
  25. 25. Kinds of Power ● Relational power, that is, the power that derives from the nature of the relationship between the parties;
  26. 26. Kinds of Power ● Situational power, the conditions in the conflict situation that give power to one party or one issue more than another
  27. 27. Five Bases of Power John French and Bertram Raven
  28. 28. Reward power
  29. 29. Coercive power
  30. 30. Legitimate power
  31. 31. Referent power
  32. 32. Expert power
  33. 33. The important point to remember is that both parties have power in any conflict and that power derives from the interdependence between the two parties in general and the particular situation they are in
  34. 34. For conflict resolution ...
  35. 35. ● You do not need more power!
  36. 36. ● You need sufficient interdependence!!!
  37. 37. The more equal the conflicting parties are in power, the better the chances are of working out a win-win resolution
  38. 38. Conflict Styles Thomas and Kilmann
  39. 39. Avoidance Accommodation Competition Collaboration Compromise
  40. 40. Dysfunctional Conflict Strategies
  41. 41. Avoidance
  42. 42. Withdrawal
  43. 43. Imposition
  44. 44. Triangulation
  45. 45. Manipulation
  46. 46. Absolute framing
  47. 47. Revenge
  48. 48. Compromise
  49. 49. Principles for Win-Win Negotiations Roger Fisher and William Ury
  50. 50. Separate people from the problem Focus on events or behaviors rather than the parties involved.
  51. 51. Focus on interests, not positions Do not take a position and defend it or bargain for it but to focus on the interest behind the position
  52. 52. Generate options for mutual gain Brainstorm for multiple options, keeping in mind the goal of mutual gain
  53. 53. The choice of objective criteria Try to identify measurable ways to assess the value of the suggestions
  54. 54. Identify your BATNA Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement
  55. 55. Preparing for Negotiation
  56. 56. Conditions of Negotiation You are willing and Able to Negotiate Other Party is willing and Able to Negotiate
  57. 57. Step 1 Define the conflict issue (What and Why)
  58. 58. Step 2 Identify and evaluate your goals
  59. 59. Why do I want to resolve this conflict?
  60. 60. What is a good resolution for me?
  61. 61. How important is it to me that I reach this resolution?
  62. 62. How do I want to be viewed by the other party?
  63. 63. How does this situation affect the way I view myself?
  64. 64. Step 3 Do you want to resolve the issue by negotiating?
  65. 65. Consider the degree of interdependence
  66. 66. Consider your leverage The ability to influence the other side to move closer to one's negotiating position
  67. 67. Consider the context of the potential negotiation
  68. 68. Consider the nature of your relationship
  69. 69. Consider the risks of introducing the issue
  70. 70. Consider BATNA
  71. 71. Step 4 Arrange a meeting with the other party
  72. 72. Negotiating Conflict Resolutions
  73. 73. Step 5 Conduct the meeting
  74. 74. Step 6 Make a contract
  75. 75. The contract must be clear
  76. 76. The contract must address voluntary behavior from the present forward
  77. 77. The contract must be an unequivocal agreement
  78. 78. Step 7 Follow through on the contract
  79. 79. Pay attention to the other party compliance with the agreement
  80. 80. If the other party is in compliance, you should express your appreciation
  81. 81. If the other party is not following the agreement, you should arrange another meeting
  82. 82. Managers and Conflict Management
  83. 83. All organizations are like living organisms, constantly moving, changing, and interacting, and a change in any one element affects the organization as a whole
  84. 84. Some parts of the system operate informally and unofficially
  85. 85. Managers and supervisors must improve conflict management within the organization in order to minimize costs.
  86. 86. Seven key principles that can guide top supervisors and managers ...
  87. 87. 1- Prevent unnecessary conflict ...
  88. 88. Caused by creating competitive situations
  89. 89. Caused by failing to clearly define roles and responsibilities
  90. 90. Caused by failing to establish areas and lines of authority
  91. 91. Caused by making decisions without consulting the stakeholders
  92. 92. 2- Be courageous in the face of conflict
  93. 93. 3- Focus on the general pattern of conflict management in the organization
  94. 94. 4- Promote informal resolution of conflict
  95. 95. by creating policies that state a preference for resolution by discussion, although with authority still specified for making final decisions
  96. 96. 5- Formal processes need to be in place for conflict management
  97. 97. 6- Assess and improve on the organizational culture
  98. 98. 7- Model the behaviors they desire in conflict management
  99. 99. Moral and Cultural Conflicts
  100. 100. Moral conflicts are those in which the issues are framed as matters of what is morally right and morally wrong
  101. 101. Note from the outset that this absolute framing is a dysfunctional conflict strategy
  102. 102. Moral values are inherently subjective, yet they are usually held as nonnegotiable absolutes
  103. 103. In a dispute about a moral question, it’s difficult to reach a win-win resolution
  104. 104. Among the specific tactics that may be helpful in dealing with moral conflicts is reframing, that is, finding a constructive new way to view a conflict through a different lens or frame.
  105. 105. Other useful tactics include fractionating
  106. 106. Developing empathy
  107. 107. Attempting to build mutual trust

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