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FRAMING THEORY
M.SOHAIB AFZAAL
FRAMING THEORY
 “The action, method, or process, of constructing making or shaping
anything whether material or immateria...
FRAME-BUILDING
 The term frame-building refers to “the factors that influence the
structural qualities of news frames”. F...
FRAME-SETTING
 “The interaction between Media frames and individuals’ prior
knowledge and dispositions.
 What scholars a...
HOW INTERNET CHANGE FRAMING
 With the advent of the internet, people can be exposed to many
different frames because of t...
George Lakoff About Framing Theory
 George Lakoff, a professor at UCBerkeley makes the following
points about frames and ...
For Example
 When a journalist selects a topic that he or she is going to write
about, they are inevitability drawing the...
Framing Theory
Framing Theory
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Framing Theory

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Communication Theory

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Framing Theory

  1. 1. FRAMING THEORY M.SOHAIB AFZAAL
  2. 2. FRAMING THEORY  “The action, method, or process, of constructing making or shaping anything whether material or immaterial”.  In the 1930s, the media was viewed as having the ability to directly persuade and influence audiences.  The audience was viewed as passive, simply allowing the media to inject it with ideas. As time passed and research grew, scholars took a more view of media. Agenda-setting research began to be studied.  Framing comes from the word frame, two main ways- frame-building and frame-setting.
  3. 3. FRAME-BUILDING  The term frame-building refers to “the factors that influence the structural qualities of news frames”. Framing is applied to how journalists select stories, facts, etc.  News frames are formed through internal factors like occupational constraints of journalists, particularly editorial policies and news values and also through external factors like interactions between journalists and elites.  Frames inevitably highlight some issues but downplay others.  Journalists frame stories in particular ways in order to get people to either read or view.  These important factors influence how a frame is built.
  4. 4. FRAME-SETTING  “The interaction between Media frames and individuals’ prior knowledge and dispositions.  What scholars are concerned with studying, focusing most on the consequences of framing.  Research has shown that frames do affect how viewers view stories.  In particular, the way a story is framed can affect what appears as most important, who the victim appears to, who is to blame, etc.  Research has shown that political and election stories are framed in an episodic way, focusing on winning and losing, using a game or competition schema, emphasizing candidates’ style, and highlighting polls.
  5. 5. HOW INTERNET CHANGE FRAMING  With the advent of the internet, people can be exposed to many different frames because of the infinite amount of information available online.  These frames may compete with each other giving a more holistic view of a story or issue.  The audience also plays a greater role in selecting media and which frames they are exposed to when using the internet which could result in exposure to similar frames and attitude reinforcement.  More research is needed on this issue.
  6. 6. George Lakoff About Framing Theory  George Lakoff, a professor at UCBerkeley makes the following points about frames and framing:  “Communication itself comes with a frame.  The elements of the Communication Frame include: A message, an audience, a messenger, a medium, images, a context, and especially, higher-level moral and conceptual frames.  The choice of language is, of course, vital, but it is vital because language evokes frames — moral and conceptual frames.
  7. 7. For Example  When a journalist selects a topic that he or she is going to write about, they are inevitability drawing the audience’s attention to a particular topic, which is the original concept behind the agenda setting theory.  However, the way or the frame in which the information is presented to the audience is also decided by the media practitioners or the gatekeepers.  The framing theory refers to not only how the audience is influenced and interprets what is presented to them by the media, but also refers to the media’s ability to persuade its audiences to accept one meaning of a concept over another.

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