“No person may unfairly discriminate againstanyone because of their gender.” - SA constitution
GENDER EQUITY : Aims to correct genderdiscrimination, sexism, in equalities and imbalances that exist between males and females
GENDER EQUITY ISSUES IN A VARIETY OF ATHLETIC ANDSPORT ACTIVITIES
Participating in sport hasnumerous personal and healthbenefits. Sport is an importantlearning place for values suchas teamwork, goal-setting andachievement. Health benefits include physical and mental health.
And yet, until recently girls have not been encouraged toparticipate in sport, and they are still notencouraged in the same way that boys are.
Did you know that90% of all television hours devoted to sports focus on mens sports?
Read the following excerpts from ‘Gender Equity in Sports: Whose Responsibility is it?’ by Donna Lopiano.For too long, girls and women have been discouraged fromplaying sports by a succession of almost desperate mythsand stereotypes, perpetuated by the media:•If she plays sports, she will become "mannish" and"unfeminine".•If she plays sports, she will develop an eating disorder.•Because of her anatomical structure, she will suffer moreknee injuries in competitive athletics.•If she trains too hard, her ovaries and bladder will drop.•Women who play sports are lesbians.•Women arent interested in playing sports.
What role do you think the mediaplays in making male sporting activities more popular?
How male sports are full ofmale role models who are idolised by the youth. Do you think it would help women’s sport to have more role models that appeal to the youth?
a) What are the traditional sports for men in South Africa? b) What sports aretraditionally played by women in South Africa?
c) What are the variousroles in sports, not only on the field, but off as well? coaching, physiotherapy, refereeing,sports commentating, etc.
WHAT IS SEX? Sex is a biological and anatomicalclassification as male or female.
WHAT IS GENDER?Gender is the social differencebetween men and women thatis learned, and though deeply rooted in every culture, ischangeable over time, and haswide variation both within and between cultures.
SOME EXAMPLES OF SEX CHARACTERISTICS:Women can menstruate while mencannot.Men have testicles while women donot.Women have developed breasts thatare usually capable of lactating, whilemen do not. Men generally have moremassive bones than women.
SOME EXAMPLES OF GENDER CHARACTERISTICS:•In the United States (and most othercountries), women earn significantlyless money than men for similar work.•In Viet Nam, many more men than womensmoke, as female smoking has not traditionallybeen considered appropriate.•In Saudi Arabia men are allowed to drive carswhile women are not.•In most of the world, women do morehousework than men.
WHAT IS VIOLENCE? Violence is the intentional use ofphysical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, or deprivation.”
WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE?Gender-based violence is violence involving men and women, in which the female is usually the victim; and which is derived from unequal power relationships between men and women. Violence isdirected specifically against a woman because she is a woman, or affects women disproportionately. It includes, but is not limited to, physical, sexual and psychological harm (includingintimidation, suffering, coercion, and/or deprivation of liberty within the family, or within the general community). It includes that violence which is perpetrated or condoned by the state.
WHAT CAUSES GENDER- BASED VIOLENCE? It is caused by power andcontrol, cultural and social attitudes about men and women and learned behaviour.
The world we live in is characterized with violence against women. This is universally present in many forms like wife battering, sexual assault and abuse, female genital mutilation andrape, in war and peacetime, etc. Gender- based violence is the fate of millions of women all over the world and these are affecting their productivity both in thehomes, communities and places of work.
CAUSES OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE•Traditional attitudes towards women•Stereotypical roles in which womenare seen as subordinate to menconstrain•Poverty•Financial insecurity•Myth-A woman’s dress andbehaviour can cause rape.
Women who are displaced Migrants Refugees Those living under foreign occupation.Discriminated against on the basis of race Language Ethnic group Culture Age Opinion Religion Membership in a minority group.
AFGHANISTAN UNDER THE TALIBAN When a group called the Taliban controlled the government in Afghanistan from1996 to 2001, they imposed many restrictions on the behaviour of women. Some of these restrictions were:
1. A complete ban on women working outside thehome. Only a few female doctors and nurses wereallowed to work.2. A complete ban on any activity outside the homeunless accompanied by a mahram (father, brother, orhusband).3. A ban on being treated by male doctors.4. A ban on studying at schools, universities or anyother educational institution.5. All women were required to wear a burqa(covering from head to toe).6. Public stoning of women accused of having sexoutside of marriage.
7. A ban on the use of cosmetics.8. A ban on women laughing loudly.9. A ban on wearing high heels.10. A ban on playing sports.11. A ban on women appearing on balconies of theirapartments.12. All windows had to be painted so womencouldnt be seen from outside of their homes.13. A ban on the photographing or filming ofwomen. Women were whipped in public for havinguncovered ankles, not wearing clothingaccording to Taliban rules, or if they were notaccompanied by a mahram.
Facts about Gender-Based Violence Worldwide•Around the world, at least one in every threewomen has been beaten, coerced into sex, orotherwise abused by a man in her lifetime. Morethan 20 % of women are reported to have beenabused by men with whom they live.•Approximately 60 million women, mostly in Asia,are “missing” – killed by infanticide, selectiveabortion, deliberate under-nutrition or lack of accessto health care.
•Among women aged 15-44 years, gender-basedviolence accounts for more death and disability thanthe combined effects of cancer, malaria, traffic-related injuries and war.•Trafficking in women and girls for sexualexploitation by men is most common among poorwomen and girls.•Each year, 2 million girls between ages 5 and 15 areintroduced into the commercial sex industry.•Women who are victims of domestic violence are 12times more likely to attempt suicide than those whodo not experience such violence.
•During war and civil conflict, women and girls areoften targeted for special forms of violence by menas a way of attacking the morale of the enemy, bothwomen and men. Such violence often redoundsdoubly against women, first through the directexperience of violence and its aftermath andsecondly through the reactions of their families,particularly the men, to their status as survivors ofsexual crime.•Based on recent studies, more than 130 millionwomen and girls in Africa, Middle East and Asia,have undergone female genital mutilation and anestimated 2 million girls are at risk for undergoingthe procedure each year.
•In Canada, the cost of domestic violence amounts to$1.6 billion per year, including medical care and lostproductivity. Estimates in the United States placethis figure between $10 and $67 billion.Only 1 in 100 battered women in the U.S. reports theabuse she suffers. Every nine seconds, a woman isbattered by her domestic partner.•A 1998 study found that in the United States 1 outof every 6 women has experienced an attempted orcompleted rape. Of these women, 22 % were under12 years old and 32 % were aged 12-17 at the time ofthe crime.
•Studies suggest that one-quarter to one-thirdof the 170 million women and girls currentlyliving in the European Union are subjected tomale violence.•In European Union, it is estimated that 45% to81% of working women experience sexualharassment in the workplace.•In France, 95% of the victims of violence arewomen, 51% of them are at the hands of theirhusbands.•In Russia, half of all murder victims arewomen killed by their male partners.
There are different types of gender-based violence, which occur at different levels like within the family, community and state. Domestic violence, which typically occurs when a man beats his femalepartner, is the most prevalent form of gender-based violence and thisoccurs within the families and inside the homes.
TYPES OF GENDER-BASE VIOLENCE•Commercial SexualExploitation•Rape
Violence against women within the general community includesbattery, rape, and sexual assault, forced treatments and the exploitation and commercialization of women’s bodies.The social exclusion of women in some parts of the world in general and the Pardah system in the northern part of Nigeria in particular are among the violence against women that are perpetrated by the state.
Gender-based violence is a universal reality existing in all societies regardless ofincome, class and culture. It would be difficult to find one woman, whom at one time or the other in her lifetime had not been afraid merely because she was a woman.
Gender-based violence affectsboth the physical and psychological integrity of women. However subtle the violence may be in form, it has no less devastating effect. Gender-based violence can affect the female psychologically, cognitively and
EFFECTS OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE•Devastating and long lasting•Danger to a woman’s reproductivehealth and can scar a survivorpsychologically, cognitively andinterpersonally.•Withdrawn, anxious or depressed•Aggressive•Trauma.
The curriculum should therefore be broadenedso as to encompass themes and topics, whichwill teach the pupils to be aware of, anddevelop attitudes and values for combatinggender-based violence, in the society.Women are vulnerable to this violence at allstages of life. They are threatened by femaleinfanticide, incest, child prostitution, rape,partner violence, psychological abuse, sexualharassment and harmful traditional practicessuch as forced marriage.