INTRODUCTION:Iron and Steel Industry in India is on anupswing because of the strong global anddomestic demand. Indias rapid economicgrowth and soaring demand by sectors likeinfrastructure, real estate and automobiles,at home and abroad, has put Indian steelindustry on the global map. According to thelatest report by International Iron and SteelInstitute (IISI), India is the 4th largeststeel producer in the world.
HISTORY OF IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY ININDIAIron and Steel industry in the country has experienced asustainable growth since the independence of the country.A humble beginning of the modern steel industry wasreached in India at Kulti in West Bengal in the year 1870.But the outset of bigger production became noticeable withthe establishment of a steel plant. It started plant inJamshedpur in Bihar in 1907. it started production in 1912.The new township was named after Jamshed ji Tata.It was, however, only after Independence that the steelindustry was able to find a strong foothold in the country.Excluding the Jamshedpur plant of the Tatas, all are in thepublic sector and looked after by Steel Authority of India Ltd.(SAIL).
SOME OTHER INDUSTRIES:Bhilai and Bokaro Steel plant were set up withSoviet alliance. Durgapur and Rourkela came upwith British and West German technicalexpertise, respectively.
THE PRESENT SCENARIO OF THE INDUSTRYIndia has one of the richest reserves of all the raw materialsrequired for the industry, namely land, capital, cheaplabour, iron ore, power, coal etc. Yet we are 4th in the worldranking for production of steel. We produced 66.8 milliontonnes in 2010-11, while China, at the top of thelist, produced 626.7 million tonnes. Our per capitaconsumption of steel in India (at 50 kg per annum) is wellbelow the world average (at about 200 kg per annum) andmuch below that of the developed world (around 350 kg perannum).
VISION 2020 OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY IN INDIAThe National Steel Policy – 2005 aims at increasing thetotal steel production of the country to 110 million tonnesper year (in 2019-20) from 38 million tonnes (in 2004-05).This was supposed to require a compounded annualgrowth of about 7.3%. The total production in 2010 was66.8 million tonnes. The compounded annual growth from2005 to 2010 has been more than 9% which is better thanthe expected growth. But most of these are a result of thebrownfield expansion projects of the existing steelcompanies. But to continue with the same growth rate, weneed new Greenfield projects.
IMPORTS:Iron & steel are freely importable as per the extant policy.Last five year’s import of total finished steel (alloy + non alloy) is given below:-Indian steel industry : Imports (in million tonnes)Category 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12*Total Finished Steel (alloy + non alloy) 7.03 5.84 7.38 6.66 6.83Source: Joint Plant Committee; *provisional
TATA STEELTata Steel is a top ten global steelmaker and the world’s secondmost geographically diversifiedsteel producer.Tata Steel was founded in India in1907. Since 2004 the Companyhas expanded globally, acquiringAsian steel producers NatSteeland Millennium Steel (now calledTata Steel Thailand) as well asEurope’s second largest steelproducer Corus (now called TataSteel Europe Limited).
Tata Steel is part of the Tata Group, India’s largestindustrial conglomerate. Both Tata and Tata Steelhave a long history of charitable donations andsocial responsibility, with Tata spendingapproximately 4% of the Company’s profit aftertax on corporate social responsibility initiatives.Tata Steel endeavors to improve the quality of life inthe communities in which the Companyoperates. Tata Steel’s charitable projects havetouched the lives of over 800,000 people in India.
FACTS ABOUT TATA STEEL Tata Steel is the worlds 6th largest steel company. An existing annual crude steel capacity of 28 million tons. Asias first integrated steel plant and Indias largest integrated private sector steel company isnow the worlds second most geographically diversifiedsteel producer. Tata Steel plans to grow and globalise through organicandinorganic routes. Its 5 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) JamshedpurWorks plans to double its capacity by 2010.
INDUSTRY STRUCTUREThe Iron and steel Industry in India has 2separatedivisions: Integrated producers Secondary producersIntegrated Producers: Amongst the Integratedproducers, themajor producers include Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited(TISCO), Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL) and SteelAuthority of India Limited (SAIL), who generate steel byconverting iron ore.Secondary Producers: The Secondary producers like IspatIndustries, Lloyds steel and Essar Steel, create steel throughthe process of melting scrap iron. These are mainly small steelplantsand produce steel in electric furnaces, using scrap and sponge
II WORLD WAR IMPACT ON STEEL INDUSTRIES During World War II, industry productionincreased sharply because of steels importance to warmobilization.Some of this increase was a result ofproduction returning to full capacity afterthe depression. India pushed forward for making Iron and SteelforJapanese Army. Meanwhile, the United States controlled 60
THE PROBLEMS FACED BY THE INDUSTRY IN PRESENT TIMESMany steel giants signed for opining new industries withseveral state governments (especiallyJharkhand, Orissa, Chattishgarh and West Bengal) for newprojects but none of them have materialised. It has taken 5long years for Tata Steel’s Kalinganagar (Orissa) project tocomplete the rehabilitation and resettlement process. JSW’sproposed Salboni plant (W.B) hasn’t been allotted the requiredamount of land, and moreover the government, recently, tookcontrol over about 400 acres of land bought by the companybecause of a state rule that any outsider can’t buy more than24 acres of village land. POSCO is facing massive resistancefrom the natives of Jagatsinghpur (Orissa) for land acquisitionwhile many other steel plants are awaiting aid from thegovernment in terms of either land or infrastructure.
PROCESSING OF IRON AND STEELMINING Mining is the first step in the production of iron and steel. Earth is excavated deep in search of iron ore. Breaking and cutting of iron ore takes place to receive rawiron.Raw Materials from the iron ore are put in a particularly hotfire lead in the embers of the fire.This is done to get the mixture of Iron Ore and Charcoal thatis burnt with the help of a blast of air from hand workedbellows.
Conclusion :We develop economic as well as engineering indicators for productivitygrowth, technical change and energy consumption that allow us toinvestigate savings potentials in specific energy use as well as carbondioxide emissions. We discuss our findings within a broader context ofstructural and policy changes in the sector. The economic analysis showsthat productivity has been decreasing over time. The decline in productivitywas caused largely by government protection regarding prices anddistribution of steel and by inefficiencies in integrated steel plants that werereserved to the public sector. With liberalization of the iron and steelindustry productivity increasedsubstantially to positive growth rates.We further introduce cost effective and low cost potentials for reducingenergy consumption as well as carbon emissions. In comparing Indianenergy consumption to best practice energy consumption we show thatenergy savings of about 50% could be achieved. However, theimplementation of initiatives towards energy efficiency is being hampered bybarriers both of general and process specific nature occurring at the macroand micro level of the economy.