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A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges

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Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has been challenged concerning its successful adoption in real-world applications. Although MBSE remains to be the focal point of any systems engineering activities, its adoption still faces significant hurdles to demonstrate its return on investment. This presentation presents the results of a survey on MBSE adoption challenges. Based on our research and industrial work, we first identified a set of MBSE adoption challenges and then asked, through an online survey, participants to collect the opinion concerning these challenges, what phase of MBSE adoption they occur in, and the dependencies between them. With this contribution, we aim to trigger the MBSE and INCOSE community for further discussions and industrial feedback to help in understanding and measuring the challenge space of MBSE adoption. In this way, appropriate solutions could be sought to overcome the existing challenges.

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A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges

  1. 1. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami (Chami Consulting) Jean-Michel Bruel (IRIT, University of Toulouse) EMEASEC 07.11.2018 Berlin, Germany
  2. 2. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel ▪ Background ▪ The 3 Objectives ▪ Survey Design ▪ MBSE Adoption Challenges List and Phases ▪ Survey Questions and Results ▪ The 3 Findings ▪ Related Work ▪ Lessons Learned Photo by Glenn Carstens-Peters on Unsplash AGENDA
  3. 3. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Photo by Samuel Zeller on Unsplash BACKGROUND ICCS 2015 SWISSED 2015 NoSE 2017 INCOSE IS 2018 Chami, M., Morkevicius, A., Aleksandraviciene, A., and Bruel, J.M.: Towards Solving MBSE Adoption Challenges: The D3 MBSE Adoption Toolbox. In: 28th Annual INCOSE International Symposium, Washington DC USA (2018) Chami, M., Forlingieri, M, Oggier, P.: Model-Based Product Line Engineering Solution With SysML - Variability Management Approach. Nordic Systems Engineering Tour (NoSE 2017), Hamburg, Germany, Chami, M., Oggier, P., Naas, O., and Heinz, M.: Real World Application of MBSE at Bombardier Transportation. In: The Swiss Systems Engineering Day (SWISSED2015), Kongresshaus Zurich. (8th September 2015) Chami, M. and Bruel, J.M.: Towards an Integrated Conceptual Design Evaluation of Mechatronic Systems: The SysDICE Approach. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science, Reykjavik, Iceland. (2015) 650–659 EMEASEC2018 T O D A Y ' S PRESENTATION
  4. 4. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Photo by Samuel Zeller on Unsplash The 3 Objectives Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash ▪ Review the challenges list and collect new ones ▪ Determine in which phases the challenges are faced ▪ Determine the dependencies between the challenges
  5. 5. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Photo by Samuel Zeller on Unsplash Survey Design Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash ▪ Online ▪ One-page ▪ Estimated for 15 min ▪ 6 required questions ▪ (1) MBSE adoption challenges ▪ (2) What phase they occur in ▪ (3) Dependencies between them ▪ (4-6) Demographics & Background Photo by Reinaldo Kevin on Unsplash
  6. 6. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel UPFRONT INVESTMENT Photo by Erika Lanpher on Unsplash ADOPTION STRATEGY PURPOSE & SCOPE DEFINITION AWARENESS & CHANGE RESISTANCE EXECUTIVE LEVEL SPONSORSHIP METHOD DEFINITION & EXTENSION MODULARITY AND REUSABILITY COMPLEXITY MANAGEMENT TOOL DEPENDENCY AND INTEGRATION LARGE MODELS VISUALIZATION 10ADOPTIONCHALLENGES AdoptionPhases EARLY PHASE MIDDLE PHASE LATE PHASE
  7. 7. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Survey Questions and Results
  8. 8. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel
  9. 9. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel
  10. 10. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Q3 Please indicate your opinion about the dependencies between MBSE adoption challenges UpfrontInvestm ent AdoptionStrategy Purposeand ScopeD efinition Aw arenessandChangeResistance ExecutiveLevelSponsorship M ethod Definition and Extension M odularityandReusability Com plexityM anagem ent ToolDependency& Integration LargeM odelsVisualization TotalDependency% Upfront Investment 69% 74% 38% 71% 38% 19% 17% 43% 14% 383% Adoption Strategy 69% 67% 55% 69% 43% 17% 14% 38% 10% 381% LEGEND Purpose and Scope Definition 48% 64% 48% 45% 57% 33% 26% 21% 17% 359% 0 < % ≤ 10 Awareness and Change Resistance 48% 50% 41% 74% 36% 12% 26% 38% 10% 333% 11 < % ≤ 25 Executive Level Sponsorship 74% 57% 62% 62% 14% 10% 17% 19% 10% 324% 22 < % ≤ 35 Method Definition and Extension 41% 41% 67% 29% 21% 64% 55% 60% 31% 407% 33 < % ≤ 45 Modularity and Reusability 19% 29% 24% 17% 10% 60% 57% 60% 29% 302% 44 < % ≤ 55 Complexity Management 14% 12% 33% 17% 17% 60% 48% 50% 50% 300% 55 < % ≤ 65 Tool Dependency and Integration 55% 38% 38% 19% 21% 60% 33% 55% 41% 360% 66 < % ≤ 75 Large Models Visualization 21% 12% 21% 7% 5% 38% 26% 55% 71% 257% 77 < % ≤ 85
  11. 11. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Q3 Please indicate your opinion about the dependencies between MBSE adoption challenges UpfrontInvestm ent AdoptionStrategy Purposeand ScopeD efinition Aw arenessandChangeResistance ExecutiveLevelSponsorship M ethod Definition and Extension M odularityandReusability Com plexityM anagem ent ToolDependency& Integration LargeM odelsVisualization TotalDependency% Upfront Investment 69% 74% 38% 71% 38% 19% 17% 43% 14% 383% Adoption Strategy 69% 67% 55% 69% 43% 17% 14% 38% 10% 381% LEGEND Purpose and Scope Definition 48% 64% 48% 45% 57% 33% 26% 21% 17% 359% 0 < % ≤ 10 Awareness and Change Resistance 48% 50% 41% 74% 36% 12% 26% 38% 10% 333% 11 < % ≤ 25 Executive Level Sponsorship 74% 57% 62% 62% 14% 10% 17% 19% 10% 324% 22 < % ≤ 35 Method Definition and Extension 41% 41% 67% 29% 21% 64% 55% 60% 31% 407% 33 < % ≤ 45 Modularity and Reusability 19% 29% 24% 17% 10% 60% 57% 60% 29% 302% 44 < % ≤ 55 Complexity Management 14% 12% 33% 17% 17% 60% 48% 50% 50% 300% 55 < % ≤ 65 Tool Dependency and Integration 55% 38% 38% 19% 21% 60% 33% 55% 41% 360% 66 < % ≤ 75 Large Models Visualization 21% 12% 21% 7% 5% 38% 26% 55% 71% 257% 77 < % ≤ 85
  12. 12. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel
  13. 13. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel
  14. 14. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel
  15. 15. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel Photo by Samuel Zeller on Unsplash The 3 Findings Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash ▪ Most challenges are based on human and technological factors ▪ It is common that challenges of later phases are known but not considered from the beginning ▪ Challenges can be prioritized based on three factors: importance, time and dependency
  16. 16. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel RELATED WORK (Towers 2013) ‘The State of the Nation’ MBSE survey: ▪ Most used words among answers for a question asked to list 3 main challenges of MBSE were: tools, understanding, people, engineering and software. (Johnson 2015) A more detailed analysis of (Towers 2013): ▪ “Lack of evidence for, explanation of, business case, Lack of practical guidance, case studies, examples, challenges with infrastructure, tools and process” (Cloutier and Bone, 2015) MBSE survey results shown: ▪ “Increase in the number of companies practicing MBSE” but 5 remaining barriers: “cultural and general resistance to change, MBSE learning curve, availability of skills, lack of perceived value and lack of management support” (Estefan, 2008) MBSE methodologies survey ▪ “traditional document-driven approach is likely to continue for the foreseeable future” (Parviainen et al., 2009) state-of-the-art about model-driven-development ▪ “lack of modeling experts, models comparing and merging, model-level debugging was not sufficiently supported and the use of immature tools caused several problems” ▪ Towers, J., (2013). Model Based Systems Engineering – The State of the Nation. INCOSE UK Annual Systems Engineering Conference 2013. ▪ Cloutier, R., and Bone, M, 2015. “MBSE Survey,” Presented January 2015 INCOSE IW Los Angeles, CA. ▪ Johnson, J. (2015). Analysis of INCOSE UK MBSE WG 2013 Survey. ▪ Estefan, J. A, 2008. Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies. INCOSE MBSE Initiative, May 23 2008. ▪ Parviainen, P., Takalo, J., Teppola, S., and Tihinen, M., 2009. Model-Driven Development. Processes and practices. 2009. VTT Working Papers 114.
  17. 17. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel RELATED WORK (V.S. OUR WORK) ▪ Towers, J., (2013). Model Based Systems Engineering – The State of the Nation. INCOSE UK Annual Systems Engineering Conference 2013. ▪ Cloutier, R., and Bone, M, 2015. “MBSE Survey,” Presented January 2015 INCOSE IW Los Angeles, CA. ▪ Johnson, J. (2015). Analysis of INCOSE UK MBSE WG 2013 Survey. ▪ Estefan, J. A, 2008. Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies. INCOSE MBSE Initiative, May 23 2008. ▪ Parviainen, P., Takalo, J., Teppola, S., and Tihinen, M., 2009. Model-Driven Development. Processes and practices. 2009. VTT Working Papers 114. • Targets one concrete topic and in-depth investigation of the adoption challenges rather than general MBSE • We provided the survey participants a carefully established list of existing challenges with their definition to avoid any ambiguity • Allowed participants to add other challenges • The survey content was meant to be neutral, relevant to MBSE only and without any specific information related to particular methodologies, modeling languages or modeling tools • Collect the opinion related to the dependencies between the adoption challenges
  18. 18. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS SURVEY ▪Challenges faced are not only due to MBSE but also the way MBSE is adopted ▪ People (i.e., system engineers) do not like surveys… ▪ Using the prize drawing and a bit of marketing helped ▪ Final results showed that typical time spent was 12 min
  19. 19. A Survey on MBSE Adoption Challenges Mohammad Chami and Jean-Michel Bruel INCOSE EMEA Workshop 2017 @Mannheim Photo by Matt Jones on Unsplash

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