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Newcastle disease

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Newcastle disease
Economic Impact
Epidemiology
Geographic Distribution
Morbidity/Mortality
Animal Transmission

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Newcastle disease

  1. 1. Newcastle Disease Exotic Newcastle Disease, Pseudo-Fowl Pest, Pseudovogel-Pest, Atypical Geflugelpest, Pseudo-Poultry Plague, Avian Pest, Avian Distemper, Ranikhet Disease, Tetelo Disease, Korean Fowl Plague, and Avian Pneumoencephalitis
  2. 2. Center for Food Security an Overview • Organism • Economic Impact • Epidemiology • Transmission • Clinical Signs • Diagnosis and Treatment • Prevention and Control • Actions to take
  3. 3. The Organism
  4. 4. Center for Food Security an Newcastle Disease • Family Paramyxoviridae − Genus Avulavirus • 9 serotypes APMV-1 to APMV-9 • Newcastle disease is APMV-1
  5. 5. Center for Food Security an Newcastle Disease • Four pathotypes: − Asymptomatic enteric - Subclinical − Lentogenic  Subclinical to mild respiratory − Mesogenic  Respiratory or neurological − Velogenic  Neurotropic: Respiratory or neurological  Vicerotropic: Hemorrhagic intestinal lesions
  6. 6. Center for Food Security an Newcastle Disease • vND: virulent Newcastle Disease − Includes:  Mesogenic  Velogenic neurotropic  Velogenic viscerotropic
  7. 7. Importance
  8. 8. Center for Food Security an History • 1926 − Java, Indonesia − Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England • Probable earlier outbreaks in Central Europe • 1896: Western Scotland, cause of death of all chickens? • 4 panzootics from 1926 to 1981
  9. 9. Center for Food Security an History in U.S. • 1950: First U.S. case − Partridges and pheasants imported from Hong Kong • 1971-74: California outbreak − 1,321 infected and exposed flocks − 12 million birds destroyed − $56 million dollar cost to tax payers • Outbreaks in the U.S. − Due to illegal importation of exotic birds and poultry
  10. 10. Center for Food Security an History in U.S. • 2002-2003: California outbreak − 2,662 premises depopulated − 4 million birds destroyed − $160 million dollar cost
  11. 11. Center for Food Security an Economic Impact • Global economic impact enormous − More costly than any other animal virus? − Continued control measures expensive − Repeated testing for trade purposes
  12. 12. Center for Food Security an Economic Impact • Developing countries − Effects quality and quantity of dietary protein − Significant effect on human health
  13. 13. Epidemiology
  14. 14. Center for Food Security an Geographic Distribution • Endemic − Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Central and South America • Vaccine use makes assessment of true geographical distribution difficult • International monitoring − By the FAO and OIE
  15. 15. Center for Food Security an Morbidity/Mortality • Morbidity: Up to 100% • Mortality: 90% • Varies greatly depending on − Virulence and strain − Avian species and susceptibility of host − Environmental conditions − Secondary infections − Vaccination history • Some species show few or no signs − Carrier state may exist
  16. 16. Transmission
  17. 17. Center for Food Security an Animal Transmission • Direct contact with feces and respiratory discharges • Contamination of the environment − Feed, water − Equipment − Human clothing − Contaminated or incompletely inactivated vaccines
  18. 18. Center for Food Security an Animal Transmission • Survives for long periods in the environment • Incubation period: 2-15 days − 5-6 days average • Migratory birds, feral pigeons − Contamination of poultry feed
  19. 19. Center for Food Security an Human Transmission • Mild conjunctivitis − Virus shed in ocular secretions for 4-7 days − Avoid contact with avian species during this time • Lab workers and vaccination crews most at risk • No cases from handling or consuming poultry products • No human-to-human spread
  20. 20. Animals and Virulent Newcastle Disease
  21. 21. Center for Food Security an Clinical Signs • Drop in egg production • Numerous deaths within 24-48 hours • Deaths continue for 7-10 days
  22. 22. Center for Food Security an Clinical Signs • Edema of head, especially around eyes • Greenish-dark watery diarrhea • Respiratory and neurological signs • Signs vary with species and virulence
  23. 23. Center for Food Security an Post Mortem Lesions • Indistinguishable from highly pathogenic avian influenza • Hemorrhagic internal lesions − Tracheal mucosa − Proventriculus − Intestinal mucosa
  24. 24. Center for Food Security an Post Mortem Lesions • Edema of the head and neck • Edema, hemorrhage, necrosis or ulceration of lymphoid tissue • Lesions vary with species and virulence
  25. 25. Center for Food Security an Differential Diagnosis • Highly pathogenic avian influenza • Fowl cholera • Laryngotracheitis • Coryza • Fowl pox (diphtheritic form) • Psittacosis or Pacheco’s disease • Mycoplasmosis • Infectious bronchitis • Management problems − Water or feed deprivation − Poor ventilation
  26. 26. Center for Food Security an Clinical Diagnosis • Sudden decrease in egg production • High morbidity and mortality • Characteristic signs and gross lesions
  27. 27. Center for Food Security an Sampling • Before collecting or sending any samples, the proper authorities should be contacted • Samples should only be sent under secure conditions and to authorized laboratories to prevent the spread of the disease • Samples may be zoonotic
  28. 28. Center for Food Security an Diagnosis • Laboratory Tests − Virus isolation − Virus characterization  To determine virus strain and pathogenicity − Serology  No strain information, so limited value  May be used post-vaccinal to confirm immune response
  29. 29. Newcastle Disease in Humans
  30. 30. Center for Food Security an Clinical Signs in Humans • Eye infections − Reddening, excessive tearing, edema of lids, conjunctivitis, subconjunctival hemorrhage − Usually transient, cornea not affected − Lab workers and vaccination crews most susceptible − No human to human spread
  31. 31. Prevention and Control
  32. 32. Center for Food Security an Recommended Actions • Notification of Authorities − Federal: Area Veterinarian in Charge (AVIC) www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/area_offices.htm − State veterinarian www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/sregs/official.htm • Quarantine all suspect animals and the premises
  33. 33. Center for Food Security an Recommended Actions • Confirmatory diagnosis • Depopulation may occur − Proper destruction of  Exposed cadavers  Litter  Animal products
  34. 34. Center for Food Security an Control and Eradication • Disinfection of premises • Delay re-introduction of new birds for 30 days • Control insects and mice • Limit human traffic
  35. 35. Center for Food Security an Disinfection • Virus killed by: − Household bleach, 6% − Extremes in pH  Less than 2 or greater than 12 − Heat  Boiling one minute − Detergents − Dryness − Ultraviolet light and sunlight
  36. 36. Center for Food Security an Vaccination • Vaccination routine worldwide • Reduces clinical signs • Does not prevent virus replication or shedding • Not an alternative to good management, biosecurity or good hygiene in rearing practices
  37. 37. Additional Resources
  38. 38. Center for Food Security an Internet Resources • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) website − www.oie.int • USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases – “The Gray Book” − www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book/index
  39. 39. Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.
  40. 40. Author: Co-authors: Reviewer: Katie Steneroden, DVM Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD Radford Davis, DVM, MPH, DACVPM Bindy Comito Sornsin, BA Acknowledgments
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Newcastle disease Economic Impact Epidemiology Geographic Distribution Morbidity/Mortality Animal Transmission

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