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Mastitis in Dairy Cattle
AVS 346
Dairy Cattle Technology
Mastitis
 An inflammation of the milk secreting
tissues of the udder, caused by microbial
infections in one or more quart...
Mastitis Affects on Profitability
 Decreased milk production
 70% of total costs
 Not visible to producers
 Milk dumpe...
Determinants of Mastitis
Host
Infectious
AgentEnvironment
Pathogenicity, virulence,
number
Resistance,
nutrition, stress
H...
Mastitis Infection
 Almost always caused by bacteria
that generally enter through the teat
canal.
 Four ways for cow to ...
Mastitis Terminology
 Clinical – Presence of clinical signs
• Signs of infection
• Udder shows signs of inflammation (Rew...
Mastitis in a Herd
Clinical
Subclinical
Detecting Subclinical Mastitis
 Increased Somatic Cells
 Bulk Tank SCC
 DHI Individual Cow SCC
Direct Count, spectrosco...
Mastitis Terminology
 Acute
• Rapid and severe onset
• High temperature
• Serious condition
 Chronic
• Persistent subcli...
Mastitis Affects on Milk Composition
 Milk Production: Decreases milk production by
causing tissue damage, reduced lactos...
Effect of SC on Milk Composition
Measurements Normal High cell count % of normal
Total Solids 13.1 12.0 92
Lactose 4.7 4.0...
Effect of SCC on Cheese Yield
Average Somatic Cell Count
cells/ml
Cheddar Cheese Yield
lbs. cheese/100 lbs. milk
240,000 9...
Types of Mastitis
 Contagious
 Environmental
Contagious Mastitis
 Primary habitat bacteria live on/in the udder
and teat lesions
 Poor survival of bacteria in the en...
Test Don’t Guess!!!
Know the bug
your dealing
with!!
Streptococcus agalactiae
 Strep Ag
 Gram positive
 Inhabits ducts and cisterns
 Does not survive in environment
 Infl...
Strep Ag - Continued
 Common “Old Form”
 Still common in poorly managed herds
 Causes 20-40 subclinicals for each clini...
Sources of Strep Ag
 Major source is the infected cow.
 Injected into udder during milking
 Squawking
 Contaminated fl...
Staphylococcus aureus
 #1 cause of mastitis in US
 Many forms
 acute, chronic, subclinical (chronic, subclinical
predom...
Staphylococcus aureus
 Antibiotic resistance resulting from genetic
mutations
 Difficult to eliminate
 Some environment...
Mycoplasma
 Between a bacteria and a virus
 No cell wall so antibiotics are ineffective
 Control by biosecurity
 Sprea...
Control of Contagious
Mastitis
 Dip teats in germicide after pre and post milking
 Treat quarters with dry cow antibioti...
Environment Mastitis
 Environment to cow
 Incidence increases as the incidence
of contagious mastitis decreases
 Primar...
Environmental Mastitis
 Organisms from the bedding, stalls,
corrals, etc. gain entrance through
fatigued teat canals afte...
Got Mastitis??
Coliforms
 E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp.,
Citrobacter spp.
 Gram negative
 Feces, bedding, wet dirty udde...
Sources
 Infection occurs when contaminated material
contacts and enters teat canal
 Infections occur at any stage
 Sed...
Eschericha coli
 Clinical signs include:
 Acute to subclinical infections
 Yellow to watery secretion
 Subnormal tempe...
Klebsiella
 Clinical signs similar to E. coli
 Acute to subclinical infections
 Yellow to watery secretion
 Subnormal ...
Streptococcus species
 Strep non-ag
 Strep uberis, dysgalactiae, bovis
 Inhabitant of GI tract
 Clinical signs
 Milk ...
Other Environmental Organisms
 Pseudomonas
 Gram negative, ubiquitous
 Contaminated water, pipes, heater, wash
hoses, t...
Control of Environmental Mastitis
 More difficult to control than the contagious pathogens
 Most are resistant to germic...
Teat Sealant
Orbeseal
Orbeseal data
Timing of Infection
Somatic Cell Counts - SCC
 Epithelial cells and white blood cells
 Changes with milk production, infection, age, stage.
...
Factors that Influence SCC
 Minor Factors
 Age of the cow
 Stage of lactation
 Season
 Stress on the gland
 Breed
 ...
Milk Production Losses
----- Milk Production Loss -----
SC Score SCC CMT Lactation 1 Lactation 2
0 12,500 - -
1 25,000 - -...
Early Lactation Mastitis Increases DO
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
DFS DO
Before AI
After AI, Befo...
Mastitis Treatment
 IMM Therapy
 Injection of antibiotics into udder
 Systemic Therapy
 Antibiotics IV or IM
 Support...
Mastitis Treatment
 IMM Therapy
 Use an approved product
 Use proper technique
 Have culture reports and sensitivities...
Mastitis Treatment Protocols
Grade Clinical Signs Treatment
1 Milk abnormal
Udder not swollen
Cow normal
Take sterile milk...
Supportive Treatment
 Reduced risk of antibiotic residues
 Organic herds
 Oxytocin / Stripping
 Eliminates toxins and ...
Mastitis Prevention
 Proper Milking Techniques
 Procedures, training, monitoring
 Keep cows clean!
 Proper Bedding
• S...
Diagnosing a Herd Problem
 Bulk Tank SCC – Dairy Plant
 ID Herd Problem
 Individual SCC’s
 ID Cows
 CMT’s
 ID Cows
...
Flow of DHIA Data
DART, Raleigh, NC
LOOP - Ithaca,
NY
Mail or
Download
Supervisor
Upload
Farm
Components
Lab
Data & Milk S...
DHIA Individual Cow SCC
 Level of new infections
• Low (<4) last month - high (>4) this month
 Level of chronic infectio...
Culling
Graph of Previous SCS vs Current SCS
Average SCS by Lactation
Avg SCS
Lactation=1, DIM <40
SCS Throughout Lactation
Mastitis
Mastitis
Mastitis
Mastitis
Mastitis
Mastitis
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Mastitis

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Mastitis
Mastitis Affects on Profitability
Mastitis Infection
Mastitis Terminology
Mastitis Affects on Milk Composition

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Mastitis

  1. 1. Mastitis in Dairy Cattle AVS 346 Dairy Cattle Technology
  2. 2. Mastitis  An inflammation of the milk secreting tissues of the udder, caused by microbial infections in one or more quarters.  Disease of Humans  Affects 25 to 30 percent of all quarters  The most costly disease of dairy cattle  $200 /cow/year  $2 Billion annually
  3. 3. Mastitis Affects on Profitability  Decreased milk production  70% of total costs  Not visible to producers  Milk dumped due to treatment  Veterinary and drug costs  Labor costs  Culling and death losses  Lost quality premiums
  4. 4. Determinants of Mastitis Host Infectious AgentEnvironment Pathogenicity, virulence, number Resistance, nutrition, stress Housing, equipment, hygiene, weather, bedding
  5. 5. Mastitis Infection  Almost always caused by bacteria that generally enter through the teat canal.  Four ways for cow to get mastitis!!  The environment inside the udder is warm and moist with plenty of available nutrients, so bacteria multiply rapidly.
  6. 6. Mastitis Terminology  Clinical – Presence of clinical signs • Signs of infection • Udder shows signs of inflammation (Rewdness, swollen, tender, hard, etc.) • Milk is abnormal • Flecks, gargot (clots), off color, bloody • Goal <2% per month  Subclinical • No evidence of abnormality except milk positive on special tests. • CMT, SCC, Sterile milk culture, etc.
  7. 7. Mastitis in a Herd Clinical Subclinical
  8. 8. Detecting Subclinical Mastitis  Increased Somatic Cells  Bulk Tank SCC  DHI Individual Cow SCC Direct Count, spectroscopy  CMT  Sterile Milk Culture  Find mastitis causing organisms  Electrical Conductivity  Antibody ELISA  NAGase  N-Acetyl-B-D-Glucosaminidase
  9. 9. Mastitis Terminology  Acute • Rapid and severe onset • High temperature • Serious condition  Chronic • Persistent subclinical form
  10. 10. Mastitis Affects on Milk Composition  Milk Production: Decreases milk production by causing tissue damage, reduced lactose production and scar tissue formation in the udder.  Milk Quality and Composition:  Increasing somatic cell count • Polymorphonuclear neutrophils  Decreasing lactose, casein, and fat production,  Increasing blood components such as Na, K, Cl, bicarbonate, IgG and serum albumin. • Electrical potential disrupted  Bacteria, blood cells and enzymes • Proteolysis • Lipolysis and globule breakdown • Off flavors
  11. 11. Effect of SC on Milk Composition Measurements Normal High cell count % of normal Total Solids 13.1 12.0 92 Lactose 4.7 4.0 85 Fat 4.2 3.7 88 Chloride 0.091 0.147 161 Total protein 3.6 3.6 100 Caseins 2.8 2.3 82 Whey proteins 0.8 1.3 162 *Source : John C. Bruhn, Extension Food Technologist, U.C.-Davis, 1983.
  12. 12. Effect of SCC on Cheese Yield Average Somatic Cell Count cells/ml Cheddar Cheese Yield lbs. cheese/100 lbs. milk 240,000 9.748 496,000 9.686 640,000 9.430
  13. 13. Types of Mastitis  Contagious  Environmental
  14. 14. Contagious Mastitis  Primary habitat bacteria live on/in the udder and teat lesions  Poor survival of bacteria in the environment  Is spread from cow to cow, primarily during milking by milk-contaminated fomites at milking, sponge, milker's hands, milking machine  Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia, Mycoplasma bovis and sometimes streptococcus uberis are contagious mastitis causing organisms.  Usually chronic, subclinical mastitis
  15. 15. Test Don’t Guess!!! Know the bug your dealing with!!
  16. 16. Streptococcus agalactiae  Strep Ag  Gram positive  Inhabits ducts and cisterns  Does not survive in environment  Inflammation blocks duct  Leads to decreased milk production, increased somatic cell count and involution  Few enzymes/toxins produced  Antibiotic sensitivity
  17. 17. Strep Ag - Continued  Common “Old Form”  Still common in poorly managed herds  Causes 20-40 subclinicals for each clinical  Susceptible to penicillin  Can eradicate from herd with “Test & Treat” program  Well managed herds have eradicated it  Dry cow treatment highly effective  Proper sanitation and milking procedures prevent cross infection
  18. 18. Sources of Strep Ag  Major source is the infected cow.  Injected into udder during milking  Squawking  Contaminated floors and stalls  Newly purchased cows  Heifer calves suckling penmates.  Milking personnel as carriers
  19. 19. Staphylococcus aureus  #1 cause of mastitis in US  Many forms  acute, chronic, subclinical (chronic, subclinical predominates)  Produces many enzymes/toxins (catalase, coagulase)  Invasive-hyaluronidase  Resists phagocytosis & immune system  Forms abscesses; may result in fibrosis  Facultative intracellular pathogen  Decreased milk production and increased somatic cell count
  20. 20. Staphylococcus aureus  Antibiotic resistance resulting from genetic mutations  Difficult to eliminate  Some environmental survival  Skin, bedding  Transferred via milking machine and milker  Hands - Gloves  May be isolated from mammary gland of heifers  Found in combination with other bugs  Early detection critical to successful treatment
  21. 21. Mycoplasma  Between a bacteria and a virus  No cell wall so antibiotics are ineffective  Control by biosecurity  Spread through contaminated antibiotics, syringes milking units, common cloths, etc.  Teat dipping is a good preventative  Isolation and culling  Usually in well-managed herds  NYS Study – 10% of herds have infected cow  Maine BT Study 2002 – 3% of herds
  22. 22. Control of Contagious Mastitis  Dip teats in germicide after pre and post milking  Treat quarters with dry cow antibiotics at end of lactation  Milking order or separate claw for infected cows  Flush milk claws (hot water or germicide) after milking infected cows (backflushing)  Individual cloth/paper towels to wash/dry teats  Clean hands, latex gloves  Culture new cow additions  Cull persistently infected cows  Minimize teat end lesions  Dry treat heifers before calving
  23. 23. Environment Mastitis  Environment to cow  Incidence increases as the incidence of contagious mastitis decreases  Primary habitat of bacterial is in the environment (feces, soil, bedding, water)  Environmental contact at milking time or between milkings
  24. 24. Environmental Mastitis  Organisms from the bedding, stalls, corrals, etc. gain entrance through fatigued teat canals after or during milking to cause infection.  Streptococcus dysgalactia, Streptococcus uberus, and Coliform (E. coli, Klebsiella) are a few the organisms that live in the environment.
  25. 25. Got Mastitis??
  26. 26. Coliforms  E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp.  Gram negative  Feces, bedding, wet dirty udders  Transient peracute/acute mastitis  Endotoxin  Very sick - death  More prevalent in warm, wet weather
  27. 27. Sources  Infection occurs when contaminated material contacts and enters teat canal  Infections occur at any stage  Sediment from unclean surroundings, flank, and udder  Manure  Polluted water (barnyard)  Unclean equipment  Wet bedding, especially green sawdust  Infected quarter of other cows
  28. 28. Eschericha coli  Clinical signs include:  Acute to subclinical infections  Yellow to watery secretion  Subnormal temperature  Quarter can be hard and swollen  Inhabitant of GI tract  Wet milking  Septic infusion into udder  Antibiotics of little help  Supportive therapy  Fluids, steroids, antihistamines, antiprostaglandins
  29. 29. Klebsiella  Clinical signs similar to E. coli  Acute to subclinical infections  Yellow to watery secretion  Subnormal temperature  Quarter can be hard and swollen  Associated with soil contamination  Grows well in wood products  Switch bedding  Maintain high pH in bedding
  30. 30. Streptococcus species  Strep non-ag  Strep uberis, dysgalactiae, bovis  Inhabitant of GI tract  Clinical signs  Milk infections with clots and flakes  Moderate swelling  High SCC  Milking sanitation  Milk clean dry teats  Predipping  Clean up environment
  31. 31. Other Environmental Organisms  Pseudomonas  Gram negative, ubiquitous  Contaminated water, pipes, heater, wash hoses, teat dip  Antibiotic resistance  Protheca  Algae  Wet soil and mud  Yeasts  Excessive antibiotic therapy  Contaminated infusions
  32. 32. Control of Environmental Mastitis  More difficult to control than the contagious pathogens  Most are resistant to germicides in teat dip and antibiotics in dry cow therapy  Key is to ID source and remove (bedding, ponds, mud)  Clip or flame udders  Milk only clean dry teats  Clean parlor, stalls, bedding  Barrier dips  Predip teats with germicide before milking – No water  Keep cows standing after milking - feeding  Sterile single-dose infusion products  Sterile infusion techniques (alcohol swab)
  33. 33. Teat Sealant
  34. 34. Orbeseal
  35. 35. Orbeseal data
  36. 36. Timing of Infection
  37. 37. Somatic Cell Counts - SCC  Epithelial cells and white blood cells  Changes with milk production, infection, age, stage.  Measures the level of udder stress/damage/irritation  Under 240,000 /ml uninfected  Over 240,000 /ml infected  Legal limit 750,000/ml not very stringent  Not a measure of actual mastitis infection  Do not treat based solely on SCC!  Easy way to assess the mastitis level in a herd  Excellent mastitis management tool  Highest correlation with milk production of any DHIA measure  SCC probably can't be too low  Not the SCC but response to infection which is important
  38. 38. Factors that Influence SCC  Minor Factors  Age of the cow  Stage of lactation  Season  Stress on the gland  Breed  Genetics  Milking fraction  Major Factor  Mastitis infection
  39. 39. Milk Production Losses ----- Milk Production Loss ----- SC Score SCC CMT Lactation 1 Lactation 2 0 12,500 - - 1 25,000 - - 2 50,000 - - 3 100,000 -204 -408 4 200,000 -408 -816 5 400,000 T -612 -1224 6 800,000 1 -816 -1632 7 1,600,000 2 -1020 -2040 Eberhardt, et. al. 1979
  40. 40. Early Lactation Mastitis Increases DO 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 DFS DO Before AI After AI, Before Conception Control Schrick et al. 1999. NMC Proceedings. P.189-190
  41. 41. Mastitis Treatment  IMM Therapy  Injection of antibiotics into udder  Systemic Therapy  Antibiotics IV or IM  Supportive Therapy  Remove toxins – Frequent milkout  Treat dehydration, swelling and pain  Know bug  Lactational Therapy  Likelihood of success?  Dry Cow Therapy  Larger dose, longer acting product
  42. 42. Mastitis Treatment  IMM Therapy  Use an approved product  Use proper technique  Have culture reports and sensitivities  Make best guess on first drug  Cow history, treatments and results  Don’t give up on a certain antibiotic, often response is seen with longer course of therapy  Have a standard protocol
  43. 43. Mastitis Treatment Protocols Grade Clinical Signs Treatment 1 Milk abnormal Udder not swollen Cow normal Take sterile milk sample and culture. Decide to treat based on results. Possible supportive therapy 2 Milk abnormal Udder swollen Cow normal Take sterile milk sample and culture. Treat in udder with antibiotic. Possible systemic/supportive therapy 3 Milk abnormal Udder swollen Cow sick Take sterile milk sample and culture. Treat systemically and in udder with antibiotics and supportive therapy
  44. 44. Supportive Treatment  Reduced risk of antibiotic residues  Organic herds  Oxytocin / Stripping  Eliminates toxins and bacteria food  Not effective against contagious bugs  Aspirin, Antihistamines, Anti- inflammatory  Fluids – dehydration
  45. 45. Mastitis Prevention  Proper Milking Techniques  Procedures, training, monitoring  Keep cows clean!  Proper Bedding • Sand is the best bedding • Organic bedding (sawdust, etc.) must be dry • Stall sized to fit cows • Udder flaming, tail docking  Nutrition  Vitamins and minerals  Milk contagious cows last  Maintain milking equipment
  46. 46. Diagnosing a Herd Problem  Bulk Tank SCC – Dairy Plant  ID Herd Problem  Individual SCC’s  ID Cows  CMT’s  ID Cows  Reasons for Culling  Sterile Milk Culture  ID bug
  47. 47. Flow of DHIA Data DART, Raleigh, NC LOOP - Ithaca, NY Mail or Download Supervisor Upload Farm Components Lab Data & Milk Samples USDA-AIPL Associations AI Studs
  48. 48. DHIA Individual Cow SCC  Level of new infections • Low (<4) last month - high (>4) this month  Level of chronic infections • High last month - high this month  First Lactation animals affected  When are infections happening?
  49. 49. Culling
  50. 50. Graph of Previous SCS vs Current SCS
  51. 51. Average SCS by Lactation
  52. 52. Avg SCS Lactation=1, DIM <40
  53. 53. SCS Throughout Lactation

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