Needs for Sexuality Education• Information are organized, related to ethical principles, and made available to the public.• Positive attitude is developed towards sexuality; the self- esteem of the individual. View of sexuality as Gift of God• To help individuals to translate their attitudes and available knowledge into well supported decisions.• Why some people are against “Sex Education”
Sexuality education of young children• Children start learning about sex at about the same time they start learning anything at all.• A childs sexual questions demand answers, but parents often make mistakes • They may put off answering a question. • They may be dishonest . • They may blame the child for having asked a question. • They may over-react
Sexuality education of young children• Parents need not always wait for a childs questions • Parents may take advantage of teaching opportunities in normal childhood sexual play • Pregnancy or birth is an excellent discussion opener• When children are 4 or 5 years old • Parents can teach them about sexual abuse without using scare tactics • Parents may begin to teach respect for privacy • Parents should set limits on their childs exposure to nudity with the opposite-sex parent.
Sexuality education of young children• Parents must show their children how to be affectionate. • Children need to perceive their parents as being happy and comfortable with their own sexuality. • Parents should set a good example of a loving female-male relationship • They must teach their children that socially acceptable physical affection with relatives and friends can be enjoyable and wholesome.
Sexuality education of Adolescents and young adults• Negative consequences of adolescent sexual behavior • Teen Pregnancy • Problem in western communities • Sexual assaults • STDs • The rate of gonorrhea among 15- to 19-year-old females is 22 times higher than the rate for women aged 30 or older • 1/5 of all AIDS patients are in their twenties. Considering the long I.P. many of these 20-29-year-old patients were infected as teenagers. • Physical health, subsequent ability to bear children, the chances for a normal life span
Sexuality education of Adolescents and young adultsPreparing children for Puberty • Parents should not worry that they might be pushing sex on a child by explaining matters. Most kids have already heard about it in bits and pieces. That is why they are asking. • Give suitable correct informationPreparing children for Menstruation and Wet Dreams • 25% of boys and 22%of girls had no information prior to the event • The primary source of sex education for boys was the teacher (53%), and mothers (5.5%). For girls, mothers (41%) and teachers (32%). Fathers played a very small part. • The median age when information is introduced, is12-13 years
Sexuality education of Adolescents and young adultsMasturbation• Masturbation is a natural way for adolescents to learn about their bodies and releasing sexual tensions• Adolescents will benefit from being reassured that there is nothing wrong with it.• The important message to get across is that they are developing normally, and all of their new sexual feelings and urges are simply a part of growing upSTDS preventionContraception
Sex education of AdultsAnatomySexual Response CycleMechanism of ErectionCommon sexual dysfunctionsContraceptionSelf examinationSTDs method of transmission prevention
Late life sexuality education• Late Life Sexuality • Healthy adults : 81% of women were sexually active in their 60s and 65% at age 70 and older. Among men, 91% were still having sex in their 60s and 79% after age 69. • Unhealthy adults sexual activity continues for half to two- thirds of those in their 60s, with the fraction dropping to one-quarter or less after age 75. • Frequency of intercourse tends to decline with the passing years. Although there are wide variations in behavior. • Satisfaction : 80% of women and 64% of men reported that sex feels as good as or better than when they were younger.
Normal Aging• Normal aging brings physical changes that alter sexual response. • As men grow older, they produce less testosterone, which correlates with lower sexual desire and activity. Genital sensitivity decreases. • For women, libido increases as naturally produced testosterone, becomes the older womans dominant sex hormone. The vagina lubricates more slowly and become smaller and less elastic. • Many couples abandon their sex lives rather than considering how they might adapt . • Partners over 60 may have an unprecedented opportunity to become in synch. A mans retarded ejaculation is well suited to the longer time a woman needs to become aroused. Birth control is over, children are no longer likely to burst into the bedroom, and both partners have a lot more time than they used to.
Late-Life Sexuality• Effect of diseases • Diabetes , Arthritis, Incontinence, heart attack• Effect of drugs • Antihypertensive , Antianxiety , antidepressants and anticholinergic agents• Effect of surgery • Radical prostatectomy, mastectomies, hysterectomy , and colostomies
Sex Education for Special PopulationsPreoccupation with rights of Eliminatethe handicapped Tolerate & AcceptThe sexual revolution Cultivate
Education of the Educators• Educators • Parents • Teachers • Relgious men • Media • Doctors
Parents as Sexuality Educators Classically, the role of the parents was only assumed directly prior their childrens marriage Most parents are in favor of offering sex education in schools. Parents are the most important sex educators. Their role can not be replaced or imitated . – Sexuality education is a life long process. Parents are available from early childhood till adult life – Parents are regarded as a role model by their children who are in turn seeking to identify with them – Parents should also assume the prime role in redefining the family concept to include single parenthood and step parenthood Parents should be provided with basic communication skills, sex information and sex vocabulary
Sex Education in Public Schools• Ideally, there might be no need for any extensive sex education in schools if parents were doing a good job at home.• Unfortunately, most parents either cannot or do not give their children adequate home sex education.• Thus, there is a clear need for well- developed and carefully administered sex education programs in our schools
Guide lines for School Programs1. Information. • Growth and development, • Anatomy and physiology of human reproduction. • Family life, pregnancy, childbirth, • Sexual orientation, sexual response, masturbation, contraception, abortion, sexual abuse, • AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases.2. Attitudes, values, and insights.• Young people should question, explore, and assess sexual attitudes and feelings to develop their own values, increase self-esteem,• They should develop insights concerning relationships with members of both genders, and understand obligations and responsibilities to others.
Guide lines for School Programs3. Relationships and interpersonal skills. • Interpersonal skills, including communication, decision making, peer-refusal skills, and the ability to create satisfying relationships.4. Responsibility. • Young people should exercise responsibility in sexual relationships by understanding abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become prematurely involved in sexual intercourse, as well as by encouraging the use of contraception and other sexual health measures. • Sexuality education should be a central component of programs designed to reduce the prevalence of sexually related health problems, including teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual abuse.
Curriculum for prospect educators • Knowledge • Anatomy and physiology • Human sexual response throughout the life cycle • Fertility and fertility control • Gender identity, sexual orientation, and sexual identity • Standard and Nonstandard sexual behavior • Sex roles and sex differences: biological, sociological, and psychological aspects • Marriage and family with perspectives for the future • Alternative interpersonal life styles • Sexuality and disability • Current issues in sexuality
Curriculum for prospect educators • Attitudes • Analysis and processing of personal sex history • Assessment of personal impact on others • Exploring body image • Exploring sexual orientation and sexual behavior • Exploring sexual value clarification • Exploring cross-cultural attitudes on sexuality • Exploring sex role attitudes
Curriculum for prospect educators• Methodology • Communication techniques • Group dynamics and group facilitation • Curriculum development and material selection • Teaching skills for all settings • Counseling and intervention • Research and evaluation techniques
Sex education for Medical ProfessionalsDevelopment of sexuality education in medical schools • In 1960 only three medical schools in the United States had formal programs for training in human sexuality. • Emily Mudd at University of Pennsylvania • William Masters at Washington University • Lock and Vincent at Bowman-Gray . • By 1974, 106 medical schools included programs of instruction in this area .Problems • Early programs were not integral parts of the curriculum, and were dependent on the special concerns of the teachers. • The attitudes and feeling of medical student.. • The scarcity of clinical facilities
Undergraduate medical training • Pre-clinical years • Cultural and historical perspectives could be included in sociology • Psycho-sexual development and an introduction to the appropriate interviewing skills for sexual matters in psychology • The neurological and hormonal component of sexual arousal in anatomy and physiology. • Clinical years • Psychological causes for sexual symptoms in psychiatry. • Organic causes in obstetrics and gynecology, urology, genitourinary medicine, pediatrics and Surgery • Family-medicine.
Sex education for Medical ProfessionalsResidents Programs • The United States • Sex education of family-medicine residents has been conducted in only a few places • Departments of obstetrics-gynecology and psychiatry are more committed • Sex education is almost nonexistent in training of pediatricians and urologists • The United Kingdom • Only a few psychiatrists have the opportunity to work with consultants having a special interest in sexuality • The Royal College of General Practitioners • The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Sex education for Medical Professionals• Self-directed learning through literature • Quick and easy reading : British Journal of Sexual Health • More specialist publications : Journal of Sexual Medicine, Sexual Medicine, The Sexual and Marital Therapy Journal, the Institute of Psycho-sexual Medicine Journal, the International Journal of impotence research • Related journals with occasional special issues : International Review of Psychiatry, Adolescence, Journal of Adolescent Health, Current Opinions in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Urology Clinics of North America.• Formal training • Diploma in Counseling : London Institute of Human Sexuality, British Association for Sexual and Marital Therapy, The Institute of Psycho-sexual Medicine, and The Sex Information and Education Council of the United States. • M.Sc. in Psychiatry , and M.Sc. in Mental Health Studies. • M.D. in Andrology, Sexology, and STDs : Kasr El-Eini School of Medicine.
Sexuality education in Religious Settings• The religious authorities develops a lifelong relation with each member of the community.• They usually have access to establishing a relation with all members of the family. This ease of access enable them to construct a variety of approaches and programs• Religious authorities are capable of reaching special groups in orphanages, home of the aged and hospitals.• They are capable of presenting sexuality education as part of the interpretation of a creation of God and the means to fulfill it.• They are capable of addressing issues like female circumcision, masturbation, In-vitro fertilization and surrogate mothers.
Television as Sex educator• Those who tell stories hold the power in society. • Television tells most of the stories, to most of the people, most of the time. • Americans spend 15,000 hours by the time they graduate from high school versus 12,000 hours in formal classroom instruction• Negative effects• The average American teenager views over 14,000 sexual references annually• Over 50 % of parents ranked television as the greatest source of sexual learning other than the parents themselves• Only 13% of the parents felt their children received accurate information from television• Television is used to sell
Television as Sex educator • Parents need to monitor what shows their children are watching. • Parents need to realize that they can counteract the overly sexual or violent nature of TV only if they watch it with their teenagers and explain their own views.• Good examples• Real Personal : broadcasted daily on the NBC Super Channel.• In this adult sex education program, invited guests ranged from university professors, authors of sex education books, and medical professionals, to ordinary lay people exchanging their ideas, clarifying concepts, presenting attitudes and sharing their different real life experiences• The Night School : organized by BBC• A resource for teachers who want to explain the sexuality related issues to their pupils.• Includes various issues classified by the pupils age as well as Health Education for Governors setting up school policies in sex education
Internet as Sexuality educator• Educators are potentially the greatest beneficiaries of this technology• Free Internet initiative• Parents and teachers in charge of other peoples children want to be sure that kids do not have access to porno material • Location, parental surveillance • Software • Safe ISPs• Child Abuse Crimes
Community Education • Sex education programs must respect the social, cultural, and religious values and believes. • The role of various parties involved vary from community to community. • Programs should be tailored to fit the needs.• Role modeling • ‘African Footballers Unite Against AIDS • CAF teamed with UNICEF • George Weah (Liberia) Abedi Pele (Ghana) Kalusha Bwalya (Zambia) Doctor Khumalo (South Africa)• The Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) • The Pan Arab Society for Sexual Medicine • “Youth for Youth” by the International Planned Parenthood Federation • This project empowers young people in six developing countries to promote their own adolescent sexual education.
Four Major Types Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris). Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are "the lips" that surround the vagina). Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris. Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.
Circumcision & FSMShort-term health problems: -Bleeding or hemorrhaging: If the bleeding is severe, girls can die. -Infection: The wound can get infected and develop into an abscess (a collection of pus). Girls can get fevers, sepsis (a blood infection), shock, and even die, if the infection is not treated. -Pain: Girls are routinely cut without first being numbed or having anesthesia. The worst pain tends to occur the day after, when they have to urinate onto the wound. -Trauma: Girls are held down during the procedure, which can be physically or psychologically traumatic.Long-term health problems (usually occurs to women with the most severe form of FGC): Urinary problems Female sexual dysfunction Problems with gynecological health. Increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Problems getting pregnant, and problems during pregnancy and labor.. Psychological and emotional stress.
Prospects of Sex Education in Egypt• The blind adoption of the programs and methods applied in the West is not possible.• Rather special programs should be tailored to deal our needs and problems; adolescent marriage, family planning and female circumcision• Programs should take into consideration the social, cultural and religious beliefs and values prevailing in our community.• The role of the religious authorities is of utmost importance.• Sexuality education will only succeed upon the collaboration among various institutions and groups within the Egyptian society.• The main challenge to the success is to educate the educators in that case parents, teachers, religious authority, media, and medical professionals.