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Introduction to AVR Microcontrollers
by:
Eng. Mohamed Tarek.
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 1
Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor
 Micro-controller
• Basically a microcontroller can be described as
a computer on a ...
Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor
Many IC’s into one IC
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 3
Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor
 Microcontrollers don’t work alone in the circuit it must
interfaces with other on c...
Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 5
Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor
 Micro-processor
• Just a CPU has to add externally memory, clock,
input/output inte...
Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 7
Micro-Controller Components
 Processor
The processor refers to the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of the
microcontroller. ...
Micro-Controller Components
 Non-Volatile Program Memory
This is memory used by the microcontroller to store programs. Da...
Micro-Controller Components
 Interrupt Module
Interrupts enable the microcontroller to monitor certain events in the
back...
Micro-Controller Components
 Serial Modules
These modules are used for serial communication with the external
world. An e...
How to select a Micro-Controller
 Number of I/O ports.
 Peripherals required (Timers, ADC, USART,SPI and
EEPROM).
 Memo...
Microcontroller Vendors
 Microcontroller Vendor is the manufacture of
the microcontroller chip it self.
© 2015 by Eng. Mo...
AVR History
 AVR was developed in the year 1996 by Atmel
Corporation.
 The architecture of AVR was developed by Alf-Egil...
AVR Micro-controllers Categories
 1.TinyAVR
• Less memory
• small size
• suitable only for simpler applications.
 2.Mega...
AVR Micro-controllers Categories
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 16
AVR Micro-controllers Categories
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 17
What’s special about AVR?
 AVR micro-controllers are fast executes most of the
instructions in single execution cycle.
 ...
What’s special about AVR?
 Comparison between the three most
commonly used families of microcontrollers:
© 2015 by Eng. M...
What’s special about AVR?
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 20
What’s special about AVR?
 8-bit Micro-controllers
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 21
What’s special about AVR?
 AVR follows Harvard Architecture
• the processor is equipped with separate memories and buses ...
ATmega16
 Naming Convention
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 23
Flavors of ATmega16
 There are two flavors for ATmega16 microcontroller:
1. ATmega16: Operating frequency range is 0 – 16...
ATmega16 Architecture
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 25
ATmega16 Architecture
 I/O Ports
ATmega16 has four (PORTA, PORTB, PORTC and PORTD) 8-bit
input-output ports.
 Timers/Cou...
ATmega16 Architecture
 Analog Comparator
The Analog Comparator compares the input values of two analog
signals.
 Interru...
ATmega16 Architecture
 TWI(Two Wire Interface )
Also called Inter-integrated Circuits can be used to set up a network
of ...
ATmega16 Architecture
 Internal Calibrated Oscillator
• ATmega16 is equipped with an internal oscillator for driving its
...
ATmega16 Architecture
 Memory: ATmega16 has three different memories
• Program flash EEPROM memory: ATmega16 is available...
ATmega16 pins
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 31
ATmega16 pins
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 32
ATmega16 pins
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 33
ATmega16 pins
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 34
ATmega16 Active Low Reset circuit
R= 4.7KΩ
C= 0.1µf or 100nf
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 35
Micro-controller clock
 Clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates
between a high and a low state, Circu...
Micro-controller clock(External sources)
37
Crystal oscillator RC oscillator
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek.
ATmega16 Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 38
ATmega16 External Crystal Oscillator
C1 = C2 = 12 - 22pf
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 39
ATmega16 External Crystal Oscillator
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 40
ATmega16 External Crystal Oscillator
 Example configure the µC to deal with 16Mhz Crystal
• CKSEL3  1
• CKSEL2  1
• CKS...
How to program AVR Microcontroller using ISP
 Connection between Microcontroller and PC
Parallel Port
© 2015 by Eng. Moha...
AVR Useful Tutorials
 http://maxembedded.com/
 http://extremeelectronics.co.in/
 http://www.embedds.com/avr-tutorials/
...
© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 44
Contact Details
Eng. Mohamed Tarek.
Embedded Software Engineer
Mob: 01115154316
Mail: mtarek.2013@gmail.com
45
My Embedded...
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Introduction to Avr Microcontrollers

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A brief introduction to AVR Microcontrollers

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  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
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Introduction to Avr Microcontrollers

  1. 1. Introduction to AVR Microcontrollers by: Eng. Mohamed Tarek. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 1
  2. 2. Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor  Micro-controller • Basically a microcontroller can be described as a computer on a chip. a single chip containing a CPU, non-volatile memory (RAM), volatile memory(ROM), a timer and an I/O control unit. • A microcontroller apart from the above mentioned components usually also include serial communication capabilities, interrupt controls and analog I/O capabilities. • Used for a few dedicated functions determined by the system designer. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 2
  3. 3. Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor Many IC’s into one IC © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 3
  4. 4. Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor  Microcontrollers don’t work alone in the circuit it must interfaces with other on chip devices like Sensors, Switches, Leds, LCD, Keypad and DC Motor  Microcontroller can accept inputs from some components and provide outputs to other components within any given system.  Differences in requirements, make the manufacturers produce different microcontrollers with different memory sizes, number of I/O lines and number of integrated peripheral devices. Other wise they are all similar to use. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 4
  5. 5. Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 5
  6. 6. Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor  Micro-processor • Just a CPU has to add externally memory, clock, input/output interfaces, timer and all other needed peripheral. This is the reason a microprocessor has so many pins. • The difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor is that the microprocessor is a general purpose computer while a microcontroller is a computer dedicated to one or just a few tasks. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 6
  7. 7. Micro-controller vs. Micro-processor © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 7
  8. 8. Micro-Controller Components  Processor The processor refers to the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of the microcontroller. It contains the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit, Instruction Decoder and some Special Registers (Stack Pointer, Status Register, Program Counter, etc.).  Volatile Data Memory(RAM) This is memory used by the microcontroller for temporary data storage, system setup and peripherals configuration registers. Memory in this category includes SRAM and DRAM. AVR microcontrollers utilize SRAM. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 8
  9. 9. Micro-Controller Components  Non-Volatile Program Memory This is memory used by the microcontroller to store programs. Data can also be stored in this memory but the access time is much slower than that of RAM. Memory in this category includes ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and FLASH. The AVR microcontrollers utilize Flash for program storage, some AVR controllers contains a bit of EEPROM as well to store non volatile data.  Timer Module Most microcontrollers have at least one timer/counter peripheral. Timer/Counter modules are used to perform timing or counting operations in the controller. These include time stamping, measuring intervals, counting events, etc. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 9
  10. 10. Micro-Controller Components  Interrupt Module Interrupts enable the microcontroller to monitor certain events in the background while executing and application program and react to the event if necessary pausing the original program. This is all coordinated by the interrupt module.  Digital I/O Module This module allows digital/logic communication with the microcontroller and the external world. Communication signals are that of TTL or CMOS logic.  Analog I/O Modules These modules are use to input/output analog information from/to the external world. Analog modules include Analog Comparators and Analog-to-Digital Converters. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 10
  11. 11. Micro-Controller Components  Serial Modules These modules are used for serial communication with the external world. An example is the USART peripheral which utilizes the RS232 standard. Serial Peripheral Interface(SPI) and Inter Integrated Circuit(I2C). © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 11
  12. 12. How to select a Micro-Controller  Number of I/O ports.  Peripherals required (Timers, ADC, USART,SPI and EEPROM).  Memory requirements.  Maximum clock speed.  Real-Time considerations.  Number of interrupts required  Power Consumption / sleep modes.  Availability and Cost.  Vendor Support.  Development Environment. 12© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek.
  13. 13. Microcontroller Vendors  Microcontroller Vendor is the manufacture of the microcontroller chip it self. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 13 Vendor Families Derivative AVR ATmega16 8051 AT83EB5114 PIC PIC16F877A V850 V850ES HC12 MC9S12XEP100 TM4C TM4C123GH6PM
  14. 14. AVR History  AVR was developed in the year 1996 by Atmel Corporation.  The architecture of AVR was developed by Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard Wollan.  AVR derives its name from its developers and stands for Alf-Egil Bogen Vegard Wollan RISC microcontroller.  Also known as Advanced Virtual RISC.  The first microcontroller to hit the commercial market was AT90S1200 in the year 1997. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 14
  15. 15. AVR Micro-controllers Categories  1.TinyAVR • Less memory • small size • suitable only for simpler applications.  2.MegaAVR • These are the most popular ones. • having good amount of memory (up to 256 KB) higher number of inbuilt peripherals. • suitable for moderate to complex applications.  3.XmegaAVR • Used commercially for complex applications, which require large program memory and high speed. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 15
  16. 16. AVR Micro-controllers Categories © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 16
  17. 17. AVR Micro-controllers Categories © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 17
  18. 18. What’s special about AVR?  AVR micro-controllers are fast executes most of the instructions in single execution cycle.  AVRs are about 4 times faster than PICs.  They consume less power and can be operated in different power saving modes.  Free IDE.  Available in Egyptian market. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 18
  19. 19. What’s special about AVR?  Comparison between the three most commonly used families of microcontrollers: © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 19
  20. 20. What’s special about AVR? © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 20
  21. 21. What’s special about AVR?  8-bit Micro-controllers © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 21
  22. 22. What’s special about AVR?  AVR follows Harvard Architecture • the processor is equipped with separate memories and buses for Program and the Data information. Here while an instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 22
  23. 23. ATmega16  Naming Convention © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 23
  24. 24. Flavors of ATmega16  There are two flavors for ATmega16 microcontroller: 1. ATmega16: Operating frequency range is 0 – 16 MHz. 2. ATmega16L: Operating frequency range is 0 – 8 MHz. If we are using a crystal of 8 MHz = 8 x 106 Hertz = 8 Million cycles, then AVR can execute 8 million add instructions per second. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 24
  25. 25. ATmega16 Architecture © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 25
  26. 26. ATmega16 Architecture  I/O Ports ATmega16 has four (PORTA, PORTB, PORTC and PORTD) 8-bit input-output ports.  Timers/Counters ATmega16 consists of two 8-bit and one 16-bit timer/counter.  Watchdog Timer Present with internal oscillator. Watchdog timer continuously monitors and resets the controller if the code gets stuck at any execution action for more than a defined time interval.  ADC Interface ATmega16 is equipped with an 8 channel ADC with a resolution of 10-bits. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 26
  27. 27. ATmega16 Architecture  Analog Comparator The Analog Comparator compares the input values of two analog signals.  Interrupt Unit Consists of 21 interrupt sources out of which four are external. The remaining are internal interrupts which support the peripherals like USART, ADC, Timers etc.  USART Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter interface is available for interfacing with external device capable of communicating serially (data transmission bit by bit). © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 27
  28. 28. ATmega16 Architecture  TWI(Two Wire Interface ) Also called Inter-integrated Circuits can be used to set up a network of devices, many devices can be connected over TWI interface forming a network, the devices can simultaneously transmit and receive and have their own unique address.  SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) Used for serial communication between two devices on a common clock source.  ISP(In System Programmable ) Flash Memory which can be programmed without removing the IC from the circuit. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 28
  29. 29. ATmega16 Architecture  Internal Calibrated Oscillator • ATmega16 is equipped with an internal oscillator for driving its clock. By default ATmega16 is set to operate at internal calibrated oscillator of 1 Mhz. • The maximum frequency of internal oscillator is 8Mhz. • ATmega16 can be operated using an external crystal oscillator with a maximum frequency of 16MHz © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 29
  30. 30. ATmega16 Architecture  Memory: ATmega16 has three different memories • Program flash EEPROM memory: ATmega16 is available with 16KB of in system programmable Flash EEPROM. • SRAM(data memory) :ATmega16 is equipped with 1KB of internal SRAM. • Byte Addressable EEPROM: ATmega16 has 512 bytes of EEPROM used to store non-volatile data. Note: A small portion of SRAM is set aside for general purpose registers used by CPU and for the peripheral subsystems of the microcontroller. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 30
  31. 31. ATmega16 pins © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 31
  32. 32. ATmega16 pins © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 32
  33. 33. ATmega16 pins © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 33
  34. 34. ATmega16 pins © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 34
  35. 35. ATmega16 Active Low Reset circuit R= 4.7KΩ C= 0.1µf or 100nf © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 35
  36. 36. Micro-controller clock  Clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state, Circuits use the clock signal for synchronization may become active at either the rising edge, falling edge, or, in the case of double data rate, both in the rising and in the falling edges of the clock cycle.  Microcontroller clock generator source could be internal or external.  Microcontroller external clock sources could be RC oscillator or Crystal oscillator but internal clock source could by RC oscillator only. 36© 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek.
  37. 37. Micro-controller clock(External sources) 37 Crystal oscillator RC oscillator © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek.
  38. 38. ATmega16 Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 38
  39. 39. ATmega16 External Crystal Oscillator C1 = C2 = 12 - 22pf © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 39
  40. 40. ATmega16 External Crystal Oscillator © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 40
  41. 41. ATmega16 External Crystal Oscillator  Example configure the µC to deal with 16Mhz Crystal • CKSEL3  1 • CKSEL2  1 • CKSEL1  1 • CKSEL0  1 • CKOPT  0 © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 41
  42. 42. How to program AVR Microcontroller using ISP  Connection between Microcontroller and PC Parallel Port © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 42
  43. 43. AVR Useful Tutorials  http://maxembedded.com/  http://extremeelectronics.co.in/  http://www.embedds.com/avr-tutorials/  http://avr-tutorials.com/ © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 43
  44. 44. © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek. 44
  45. 45. Contact Details Eng. Mohamed Tarek. Embedded Software Engineer Mob: 01115154316 Mail: mtarek.2013@gmail.com 45 My Embedded Diploma Contents : http://www.mediafire.com/download/94n11ai9ovo1xri/Embedded+Diploma+ Contents.pdf Facebook Group : https://www.facebook.com/groups/Embedded.Systems.Programming/ © 2015 by Eng. Mohamed Tarek.

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