Mohamed Mostafa Omran
Faculty of Sciences, Helwan University
What Are Minerals?
• Inorganic elements essential to the nutrition
• Minerals are essential to body function
– Play several key roles in overall health and well
• Help chemical reactions take place in cells
• Help muscles contract
• Keep the heart beating
• Two groups
– Major minerals
– Trace minerals
What Are Minerals?
• Major minerals
– Need to consume > 100 milligrams per day
– At least 5 grams of the mineral in the body
– Calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride,
phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur
What Are Minerals?
• Trace minerals
– Need to consume > 20 milligrams per day
– The body contains less than 5 grams total
– Iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, iodide,
manganese, molybdenum, and fluoride
• Body maintains tight control over mineral balance
– GI tract
Regulates absorption from food based on the body’s
Minerals in gastric juices and that slough-off intestinal
cells are either excreted in the feces or reabsorbed
through the large intestine
Excretes excess and reabsorbs the minerals when the
body needs them
• Minerals work together to perform important
functions in the body
– Fluid and electrolyte balance
– Blood formation
– Building healthy bones
– Maintaining a healthy immune system
Minerals Help Maintain Fluid Balance
• Minerals play a key role in fluid balance in the
– Extracellular minerals – sodium and chloride
– Intracellular mineral – potassium with the help of
calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.
Mineral Participate as Cofactors
• Cofactor – substance that helps catalyze a reaction
• Minerals serve as cofactors in
– Antioxidant systems
– Energy production
– Muscle contraction
– Nerve transmission
Minerals Make Up Bones and Teeth
• Minerals make up the crystalline structure
(hydroxyapatite) that gives strength to bones and
– Major minerals
• Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium
– Trace mineral
Thermolysin: is a thermostable neutral metalloproteinase enzyme produced by
the +ve Gram bacteria Bacillus thermoproteolyticus.
It requires one zinc ion for enzyme activity and four calcium ions for structural
bonds containing hydrophobic amino acids.
Thermolysin use in the synthesis of aspartame. It is composed of aspartic acid
and phenyl alanine. Aspartame which acts as sweetening agent being used in
replacement of cane sugar.
Food sources of phosphorus
The main food sources for
phosphorus are foods
For example, egg, milk,
meat, and soya
Fibroblast growth factor 23 or FGF23
• FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family which is
responsible for phosphate metabolism.
• The main function of FGF23 seems to be regulation of phosphate concentration in
• FGF23 is secreted by Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts in response to
• FGF23 decreases the reabsorption and increases excretion of phosphate.
1. Calcitriol increases blood calcium levels ( [Ca2+] ) by promoting absorption of
dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and increasing renal
tubular reabsorption of calcium thus reducing the loss of calcium in the urine.
2. Calcitriol also stimulates release of calcium from bones.
3. Calcitriol acts in concert with parathyroid hormone (PTH) in all three of these
For instance, PTH also indirectly stimulates osteoclasts. However, the main
effect of PTH is to increase the rate at which the kidneys excrete inorganic
phosphate (Pi), the counterion of Ca2+.
The resulting decrease in serum phosphate causes Ca5(PO4)3OH to dissolve out
of bone thus increasing serum calcium.
• Important in energy metabolism catalyst
through ATP production.
• critical to heart function.
• It activates, phosophate transferases,
decarboxylases and acyl transferases.
Potassium like sodium, chloride and bicarbonate ions, plays
an important role in the osmotic regulation of body fluids.
Sodium mainly found in the extracellular tissues, whereas
potassium principally present in the cell (intracellular).
It plays an important role in nerve and muscle excitability.
It plays role in carbohydrate metabolism (cofactor of
propionly CoA carboxlase).
– energy metabolism, catalyst, ATP production
critical to heart function.
• Most of the sodium of the human body is present in the
soft tissues and body fluids; like potassium it is
concerned with the acid base balance and osmotic
• It is a chief cation of blood-plasma and other
extracellular fluids of the body. Much of it is ingested as
common salt and excreted in urine.
Transmission and conduction of nerve impulses
Responsible for osmolality of vascular fluids
Regulation of body fluid levels
Assists with regulation of acid-base balance by
combining with Cl or HCO3 to regulate the
• Sodium shifts into cells and potassium shifts out
of the cells (sodium pump)
sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase)
• The sodium-potassium pump was discovered in the 1950s by a
Danish scientist, Jens Christian Skou, who was awarded a Nobel Prize
• Failure of the Na-K pumps can result in swelling of the cell.
• A cell's osmolarity is the sum of the concentrations of the
various ion species and many proteins and other organic compounds
inside the cell.
• When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water
flows into the cell through osmosis. This can cause the cell to swell up
and lyse. The Na-K pump helps to maintain the right concentrations
of ions. Furthermore, when the cell begins to swell, this automatically
activates the Na-K pump
• Chloride is principle anion of body fluids.
• It is associated with sodium and potassium in acid-base balance and
• plays an important role in gastric secretion (hydrochloric acid) and
• It is excreted in urine and in perspiration with sodium and potassium.
• Sources: Chloride is part of sodium chloride.
• With exception of fish and meat meals, the chloride contents of most
of the foods is very low.
• rarely lacking, dehydration due to water deficiency.
Found in extracellular fluids
Changes the blood osmolality
Goes with Na in retention of water
Assists with regulation of acid-base balance
Chloride combines with hydrogen to form
hydrochloric acid in the stomach
• Essential nutrient, vital to many of the cell’s activities.
• Iron forms : Incorporated into Hemoglobin (80%),
Myoglobin, Enzymes, Cytochromes (20 %)
• *Hemoglobin protein in the red blood cells and myoglobin
protein in the muscle cells.
– Iron present in Hb is Fe 2+ state,
– Organic/heme iron (10%) Fe2+ (more soluble).
– Inorganic/non-heme iron (90%) Fe3+ (less soluble)
Role of iron in the body
Iron has three main functions :
1. carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
2. Aiding energy production. Iron is constituent of several enzymes
including : iron catalase, peroxidase, and cytochrome enzymes.
• Iron Absorption and Metabolism
– Free iron is toxic to cells as it acts as a catalyst in the
formation of free radicals. Hence, within cells, iron is
stored in a protein complex as ferritin (major) or
– Apoferritin can take up to 4300 atoms of iron per
– Blood transferritin: transfers the iron to the rest of the
body. Transferrin receptors are present on most body
cells, especially on cells which synthesize heme.
• Absorption-Enhancing Factors:
– MFP factor: a factor associated with the digestion of
Meat, Fish, and Poultry that enhances nonheme iron
– Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Ascorbate increases absorbtion (by reducing).
– Citric acid and lactic acid from foods and HCl acid from
• Absorption-Inhibiting Factors:
Phytate and fibers (grains and vegetables).
Calcium and phosphorus (milk).
EDTA (food additive).
Tannic acid (and other polyphenols in tea and coffee).
Average percentage of iron absorbed from selected foods by healthy adults.
Iron Absorption from Food
People absorb more iron from foods and supplements when body
stores of iron are low than when stores of iron are high.
Macrophages engulfs old
RBCs and releases heme.
Heme oxygenase separates
them and Fe is then stored
Human hemochromatosis protein also known as the HFE protein is
a protein which in humans is encoded by the HFE gene. this protein functions to
regulate iron absorption by regulating the interaction of the transferrin receptor
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Normal Red Blood Cells
Iron Deficiency Anemia-Small microcytic and
pale hypochromic cells
contain less hemoglobin.
formation of collagen -connective tissue
Keratin- helping to give strength, shape, hardness
of skin and hair
Taurine is found in bile acids, used in digestion
Glutathione (glutamic acid+cysteine+glycine), protects
against hemolysis of RBC by breaking H2O2 which causes
cell damage (antioxidant).
The mucopoly-saccharides may contain chondroitin
sulfate, which is important to joint tissues.
• It helps with the human immune
system, DNA synthesis, and cells.
• It plays a vital role in growth and
developmental functions in
pregnant woman, children and
• It is required for proper sense of
taste and smell.
• Essential for proper reproduction in
males, requires for
• A deficiency is Zinc may
– growth retardation
– loss of appetite
– impairment of
– hair loss
– Low sperm count
• Fluorine prevents tooth
decay and cavities and
strengths the enamel.
• If there is a deficiency
of fluorine during the
growing period, it will
result in dental caries
and tooth decay.
• Discoloration and
pitting of tooth enamel
caused by excess
fluoride during tooth
1. Enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ferrous
iron to ferric iron are copper enzyme
2. Helps in the absorption of iron absorption of
iron and Synthesis of hemoglobin.
3. Superoxide dismutases is Cu enzyme that catalyze
the hydrolysis of superoxide (O2−) into O2 and H2O (
Chromium (closely with insulin )
1. It is very important in order for insulin
2. It works closely with insulin to facilitate
the uptake of glucose into cells (Glucose
3. It participates in the in the transport of
amino acids into the cells (Heart, Liver).