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Child and adolescent psychiatry

some psychiatric disorders among children

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Child and adolescent psychiatry

  2. 2. Introduction • “Child and adolescent Mental Health is the capacity to achieve and maintain optimum psychological functioning and well being. It is directly related to the level reached and competency achieved in psychological and social functioning” • CAMHS- Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services • The term CAMHS is used in two ways • all services that contribute to the mental health care of children and young people • other applies specifically to specialist child and adolescent mental health services, provided in Tiers 2, 3, and 4
  3. 3. • The tier concepts • Tier 1 CAMHS is provided by professionals whose main role and training is not in mental health, for example GPs, health visitors, paediatricians, social workers, teachers, youth workers, and juvenile justice workers • Tier 2 CAMHS is provided by specialist mental health professionals with training in child development, working primarily alone, rather than in a team. Their role may include direct contact with young people, consultation to Tier 1 and training • Tier 3 services are provided by a multidisciplinary team who see young people with more complex mental health problems • Tier 4 services are very specialized services in residential, day patient, or outpatient settings for children and adolescents with severe and/or complex problems requiring a combination or intensity of interventions that cannot be provided by Tier 3 CAMHS
  4. 4. Conduct disorder • The conduct disorders are characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of antisocial, aggressive, or defiant behaviors that violate age appropriate societal norms • Conduct disorders can be divided into conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
  5. 5. Conduct Disorder • Commoner in boys and in urban populations • Clinical features - Aggression/cruelty to people and/or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, theft, fire-setting, truancy and running away from home, and severe provocative or disobedient behavior. • ICD-10 requires 1 or more feature at a marked level for over 6mths; DSM-IV requires 3 or more over 12mths, with 1 in last 6mths • Aetiology • Social disadvantage: poverty, low socio-economic class, overcrowding, homelessness, social isolation, high community rates of deviancy, truancy, unemployment • Parenting: parental criminality, parental psychiatric disorder and substance misuse, inconsistent and critical parenting style, parental conflict, teenage pregnancy, single parenthood • Child: low IQ, neurodevelopmental problems, brain damage, epilepsy, difficult/under-controlled temperament, attachment problems, and poor interpersonal relationships.
  6. 6. • Comorbidity : ADHD; learning difficulties (especially dyslexia); substance abuse; depression; anxiety disorder; autism spectrum disorders (ASD). • Management • Functional family therapy • Multi-systemic therapy : family-based, including school and community. Highly resource-intensive, but good outcomes • Child interventions : social skills, problem-solving, anger management, confidence building • Treat comorbidity
  7. 7. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) • Essence An enduring pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior, without serious violations of societal norms or the rights of others. Behavior may occur in one situation only (e.g. home) and tends to be most evident in interactions with familiar adults or peers • More common in boys and in childhood rather than adolescence. • Same management principles as for CD
  8. 8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) • Characterized by the three core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness • DSM-IV recognizes 3 subtypes: a combined subtype where all 3 features are present, an inattentive subtype (ADD), and a hyperactive- impulsive subtype • Symptoms should be at developmentally inappropriate levels, be present across time and situations for at least 6 months, and starting before age 7
  9. 9. • Aetiology : 80% of cases are genetically inherited and risk of ADHD in siblings is 2–3 times increased. Rates are increased in low birth-weight babies and babies born to mothers who used drugs, alcohol, or tobacco during pregnancy, following head injury, and in some genetic and metabolic disorders • Comorbidity : specific learning disorders, motor co-ordination problems, autism spectrum disorder, tic disorders, CD, ODD, substance abuse, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder • Clinical features of ADHD • Inattention Careless with detail, fails to sustain attention, appears not to listen, fails to finish tasks, poor self-organization, loses things, forgetful, easily distracted, and avoids tasks requiring sustained attention • Hyperactivity Most evident in structured situations, fidgets with hands or feet, leaves seat in class, runs/climbs about, cannot play quietly, ‘always on the go’ • Impulsiveness Talks excessively, blurts out answers, cannot await turn, interrupts others, intrudes on others
  10. 10. • Management • Psycho-education • Medication • Behavioral interventions • School interventions • Treat comorbidity
  11. 11. Enuresis • The normal variation in the age of acquisition of bladder control makes it difficult to demarcate disorder • Enuresis can impact on self-esteem, family and peer relationships and restrict activities • Aetiology : Nocturnal enuresis has a strong genetic component. Both psychosocial and pathophysiological associations have been demonstrated. Diurnal enuresis is more likely to be associated with structural and functional disorders of the urinary tract;
  12. 12. • Management • Careful assessment will inform management. • Psychoeducation of child and parents. • Treat organic causes, e.g. structural abnormality, infection. • Nocturnal enuresis: there is robust evidence to support use of enuresis alarms. ‘Night lifting’, reward systems (e.g. star charts), and medication— desmopressin, imipramine, oxybutynin—may also be helpful. • Diurnal enuresis: body alarms, watch alarm to remind child to use toilet, medication, specific psychological approaches, e.g. anxiety management if related to fear of toilet.
  13. 13. Encopresis • Voluntary or involuntary fecal soiling in children who usually have already been toilet trained • Soiling more frequently than once a month after the fourth birthday is regarded as an elimination disorder if it is not attributable to a general medical condition • Most soiling will cease by age 16
  14. 14. • Types • 95% present with functional constipation with retention and overflow. Both physical (persistent faecal loading leading to loss of sensation of rectal filling, anal fissure) and psychological (toilet fears, fear of painful defecation) factors may be relevant • Never toilet trained • Frightened to use the toilet • Deliberately depositing faeces in inappropriate places • Management • Lifestyle changes, e.g. adequate fluid and dietary fibre • Education of child and family, and assistance to view child more positively • Medical management, e.g. laxatives • Behavioral approaches, e.g. star charts
  15. 15. Learning Disabilities • A term for a wide variety of learning problems. • LD is not a problem with intelligence or motivation. • Children with LD aren’t lazy or dumb. • The difference only is how they receive and process information. • LD can lead to trouble with learning new information and skills, and putting them to use. • The most common types of LD involve problems with reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking
  16. 16. • Signs and Symptoms: • Problems pronouncing words • Trouble finding the right word • Difficulty rhyming • Trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the week • Difficulty following directions or learning routines • Difficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the lines • Trouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoes • Management • Learn the specifics about child’s learning disability • Research treatments, services, and new theories • Pursue treatment and services at home • Nurture child’s strengths
  17. 17. Anxiety disorders • Anxiety disorders are characterized by irrational fear or worry causing significant distress and/or impairment in functioning and their relative prevalence reflects this shift in content • Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in youth • Prevalence rates range from 5–15% with 8% requiring clinical treatment • Separation anxiety disorder and specifi c phobia usually have onset in early childhood • Generalized anxiety disorder occurs across all age groups • Obsessive–compulsive disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder tend to occur in later childhood and adolescence
  18. 18. • Aetiological factors :Genetic vulnerability; temperament that exhibits ‘behavioral inhibition’ (timidity, shyness, and emotional restraint with unfamiliar people or situations); insecure attachment; stressful or traumatic life events; high social adversity; over- protective/critical/punitive parenting • Medical conditions: hyperthyroidism; cardiomyopathy; arrhythmias; respiratory and neurological diseases • Substances: alcohol; caffeine; cocaine; amphetamines; cannabis; SSRIs; LSD; ecstasy; etc.
  19. 19. • Presentation of anxiety • Behavioral presentations include over activity, inattention, sleep disturbance, separation difficulty, regression, school refusal, social withdrawal, aggression, ritualistic behaviors, and somatization • Management • Use ABC (antecedents, behavior, consequences) approach to help child and family understand what happens when the child feels anxious • Stress reduction including relaxation. • Age-appropriate CBT approaches
  20. 20. Separation Anxiety Disorder • Characterized by increased and inappropriate anxiety around separation from attachment figures or home, which is developmentally abnormal and results in impaired functioning • Causes : Genetic vulnerability; anxious, inconsistent, or overinvolved parenting; and regression during periods of stress, illness, or abandonment • Symptoms : Anxiety about actual or anticipated separation from or danger to attachment figure; sleep disturbances and nightmares; somatization; and school refusal • Comorbidity : Depression; anxiety disorders (panic with agoraphobia in older children); ADHD; oppositional disorders; learning disorders; and developmental disorders
  21. 21. Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Characterized by developmentally inappropriate and excessive worry and anxiety on most days about things not under one’s own control • Severe enough to cause distress and/or dysfunction • Affected children are often perfectionist and self-critical • Most common anxiety disorder of adolescence, mostly seen among adolescent female • Symptoms : Excessive worry; restlessness, irritability, and fatigue; poor concentration; sleep disturbances; muscle tension. In children: somatic symptoms (headache; stomach pains or ‘irritable bowel’; rapid heartbeat; shortness of breath); nail biting and hair pulling; and school refusal • Management : CBT, Psychoeducation,
  22. 22. Panic Disorder • Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks are the hallmark of this disorder, together with a period during which the child is concerned about having another attack and the possible consequences of an attack, and exhibits significant behavioral changes related to the attacks • Latter features are referred to as anticipatory anxiety • A panic attack is described as a discrete period of increased fear peaking at about 10min and lasting about 30min to 1hr
  23. 23. • Symptoms : Sweating, flushing, trembling, palpitations and tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath and choking, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, paraesthesia, depersonalization and derealization, and a fear of dying • In young children somatic symptoms predominate rather than classic symptoms • The essential feature is anxiety about being in a situation in which escape would be difficult or help unavailable should a panic attack occur • Comorbidity : Depression, substance abuse, and other anxiety disorders (especially social phobia) are most common • Management : As for generalized anxiety disorder

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some psychiatric disorders among children


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