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  1. 1. 1 Chapter 2Chapter 2 Material HandlingMaterial Handling
  2. 2. 2 IntroductionIntroduction  Definition – the movement, storage, protection and control of material (MHIA).  The purpose is to handle safely, efficiently, at low cost, on time, accurately, and without damage to the material.  Advantages – safer operating condition, lower cost, better utilization and better performance of material handling systems.
  3. 3. 3 ExamplesExamples  Movement – industrial trucks and robots.  Storage – rack, drawer, bins.  Protection – wooden pallet, pallet box, tote box.  Control – bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio frequency tags.
  4. 4. 4 Position of MHPosition of MH Automation and control technologies in the production system
  5. 5. 5 Equipments of MHEquipments of MH Categories of the equipment includes: 1. Transport. 2. Storage. 3. Unitizing. 4. Identification.
  6. 6. 6 TransportTransport Used to move material inside a factory. 1. Industrial trucks – non-powered and powered. 2. Automated guided vehicles – battery-powered and automatically steered. 3. Rail guided vehicle – self-propelled and independently operating. 4. Conveyors – move material over fixed paths in large quantities. 5. Cranes and hoists – horizontal travel and vertical lifting for heavy loads. Manually or powered operating.
  7. 7. 7 Industrial TrucksIndustrial Trucks  The non-powered types are often referred as hand trucks because they are pushed or pulled by human workers  Quantities of material moved and distances are relatively low  Classified as either two-wheel or multiple-wheel  Examples of non-powered industrial are shown in Figure 1
  8. 8. 8 F o u r w h e e l d o lly Two-wheel truck Four wheel dolly Hand-operated low- lift pallet truck Figure 1
  9. 9. 9  Powered truck are self-propelled to relieve the worker of manually having to move the truck  Three common types are used in factories and warehouse are walkie trucks, fork lift truck and towing tractor
  10. 10. 10 Walkie truck Fork lift truck Towing tractor
  11. 11. 11 Automated Guided VehicleAutomated Guided Vehicle SystemsSystems  An automated guided vehicle system (AGVS) is a material handling system that uses independently operated, self-propelled vehicles guided along defined pathways  The pathways for AGVS is unobtrusive  An AGVS is appropriate where different materials are moved from various load points to various unload points  Suitable for automating material handling in batch production and mixed production
  12. 12. 12 Three types of AGV : (a) driveless automated guided train, (b) AGV pallet truck, (c) Unit load carrier
  13. 13. 13 Monorails and other rail guidedMonorails and other rail guided vehiclesvehicles  Monorail is the motorized vehicles that are guided by a fixed rail system  Are typically suspended overhead from the ceiling  Rail guided vehicles pick up electrical power from an electrified rail  Electrified overhead monorails are used to move large components and subassemblies in its manufacturing operations
  14. 14. 14 Conveyor SystemConveyor System  Conveyors are used material must be moved in relatively large quantities between specific locations over a fixed path  The fixed path is implemented by a track system, which may be in-the-floor, above-the-floor or overhead  Divide into two categories : (1) powered (2) non-powered  Examples of powered conveyors are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4
  15. 15. 15 Roller conveyor Belt (flat) conveyorSkate wheel conveyor Figure 3
  16. 16. 16 Overhead trolley conveyor Cart-on-track conveyor In-floor towline conveyor Figure 4
  17. 17. 17 Cranes and HoistCranes and Hoist  Cranes are used for horizontal movement of materials in a facility, and hoists are used for vertical lifting.  A hoist is a mechanical device that can be used to raise and lower loads  Cranes include a variety of material handling equipment designed for lifting and moving heavy loads using one or more overhead beams for support  Types of cranes : bridge cranes, gantry cranes and jib cranes
  18. 18. 18 Jib crane with hoist (a) Bridge crane (b) Gantry crane A hoist
  19. 19. 19 StorageStorage  To store materials for a period of time.  To permit access when required.  Storage performance is measured according to the capacity, density, accessibility and throughput.  There are bulk storage, rack systems, bins, drawer storage and automated storage systems.
  20. 20. 20 High density bulk storage provides low accessibility and bulk storage with loads arranged to form rows and blocks for improved accessibility
  21. 21. 21 Pallet rack system for storage of unit loads on pallet
  22. 22. 22 Drawer storage
  23. 23. 23 A u n it lo a d a u t o m a t e d s t o r a g e / r e t r ie v a l s y s t e m
  24. 24. 24 A horizontal storage carousel
  25. 25. 25 UnitizingUnitizing  Containers used to hold individual items for protection.  Equipment used to load and package the containers.  Examples: wooden pallet, pallet box and tote box.
  26. 26. 26 IdentificationIdentification  To collect the data in material handling automatically.  There are three basic components: encoder data, machine reader and decoder.  Examples of technologies: bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio frequency tags and machine vision.
  27. 27. 27 Stationary moving beam bar code scanner located along a moving conveyor
  28. 28. 28 Material Handling SystemMaterial Handling System There are some considerations before design the system as follows: 1. Material characteristics. 2. Flow rate, routing, and scheduling. 3. Plan layout.
  29. 29. 29 Principle of MHPrinciple of MH  The purpose is to be applicable in the analysis, design and operation of MH system. 1. Planning 2. Standard 3. Work 4. Ergonomic 5. Unit load 6. Space utilization 7 System 8. Automation 9. Environment 10. Life cycle cost
  30. 30. 30 AUTOMATIC DATAAUTOMATIC DATA CAPTURECAPTURE  Automatic data capture (ADC) also known as automatic identification and data capture (AIDC).  Refers to the technologies that provide direct entry of data into a computer or other microprocessor controlled system without using a keyboard.  Used to collect data in material handling and manufacturing applications
  31. 31. 31  Material handling :  shipping and receiving, storage, sortation and order picking  Manufacturing :  Monitoring the status of order processing, work- in-process and worker attendance.
  32. 32. 32 Component of ADC Consists of three component : Encoded data  A code is a set of symbols or signals representing alphanumeric characters  When data are encoded, the characters are translated into a machine-readable code  A label or tag containing the encoded data is attached to the item that is to be later identified
  33. 33. 33 Machine reader or scanner  This device reads the encoded data, converting them to alternative form, usually an electrical analog signal Decoder  This component transforms the electrical signal into digital data and finally back into original alphanumeric characters
  34. 34. 34 Categories of ADC Can be divided into six : Optical  Use high-contrast graphical symbols that can be interpreted by an optical scanner  Include bar codes, optical character recognition and machine vision Magnetic  Encode data magnetically, similar to recording tape  Include magnetic stripe and magnetic ink character recognition
  35. 35. 35 Electromagnetic : Radio frequency Smart card  Refers to small plastic cards (the size of credit card) imbedded with microchips capable of containing large amounts of information Touch techniques : Touch screen and button memory Biometric  To identify humans or interpret vocal commands of human  Include voice recognition, fingerprint analysis and retinal eye scans
  36. 36. 36 Most widely used in industry : 1. Bar codes 2. Radio frequency 3. Magnetic stripe 4. Optical character recognition 5. Machine vision