Chapter 2 material handling

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Chapter 2 material handling

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER 2 MATERIAL HANDLING
  2. 2. 2 Introduction  Definition – the movement, storage, protection and control of material (MHIA).  The purpose is to handle safely, efficiently, at low cost, on time, accurately, and without damage to the material.  Advantages – safer operating condition, lower cost, better utilization and better performance of material handling systems.
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Examples  Movement – industrial trucks and robots.  Storage – rack, drawer, bins.  Protection – wooden pallet, pallet box, tote box.  Control – bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio frequency tags.
  4. 4. 4 Position of MH A u to m a tio n a n d c o n tr o l te c h n o lo g ie s in th e p r o d u c tio n s y s te m
  5. 5. 5 Equipments of MH  Categories of the equipment includes: 1. Transport. 2. Storage System. 3. Unitizing. 4. Identification & Tracking System.
  6. 6. 6 Equipments of MH… cont. Transport  Used to move material inside a factory. i. Industrial trucks – non-powered and powered. ii. Automated guided vehicles – battery-powered and automatically steered. iii. Rail guided vehicle – self-propelled and independently operating. iv. Conveyors – move material over fixed paths in large quantities. v. Cranes and hoists – horizontal travel and vertical lifting for heavy loads. Manually or powered operating.
  7. 7. 7 Equipments of MH…cont. Transport F o u r w h e e l d o lly T w o - w h e e l t r u c k H a n d - o p e r a t e d lo w - lif t p a lle t t r u c k
  8. 8. 8 Equipments of MH…cont. Transport a). Walkie truck, b). Fork lift truck, c). Towing tractor
  9. 9. 9 Equipments of MH Transport T h re e ty p e s o f a u to m a te d g u id e d v e h ic le : (a ) d riv e le s s a u to m a te d g u id e d tra in , (b ) A G V p a lle t tru c k , (c ) U n it lo a d c a rrie r
  10. 10. 10 Equipments of MH…cont. Transport R o lle r c o n v e y o r B e lt ( f a lt ) c o n v e y o r S k a t e w h e e l c o n v e y o r
  11. 11. 11 Equipments of MH... Cont. Transport I n - f lo o r t o w lin e c o n v e y o r O v e r h e a d t r o lle y c o n v e y o r
  12. 12. 12 Equipments of MH... Cont. Transport… cont. C a r t - o n - t r a c k c o n v e y o r
  13. 13. 13 Equipments of MH…cont. TransportJ ib c r a n e w it h h o is t a) Sketch of hoist b) Mechanical advantage
  14. 14. 14 Equipments of MH…cont. Transport… cont. a) Bridge crane b) grantry crane
  15. 15. 15 Equipments of MH…cont. Storage System  To store materials for a period of time.  To permit access when required.  Storage performance is measured according to the capacity, density, accessibility and throughput.  There are bulk storage, rack systems, bins, drawer storage and automated storage systems.
  16. 16. 16 Equipments of MH…cont. Storage System H ig h d e n s it y b u lk s t o r a g e p r o v id e s lo w a c c e s s ib ilit y a n d b u lk s t o r a g e w it h lo a d s a r r a n g e d t o f o r m r o w s a n d b lo c k s f o r im p r o v e d a c c e s s ib ilit y
  17. 17. 17 Equipments of MH…cont. Storage System P a lle t r a c k s y s t e m f o r s t o r a g e o f u n it lo a d s o n p a lle t
  18. 18. 18 Equipments of MH…cont. Storage System D r a w e r s t o r a g e
  19. 19. 19 Equipments of MH…cont. Storage System Automated storage/retrieval system
  20. 20. 20 Equipments of MH…cont. Storage System A h o r iz o n t a l s t o r a g e c a r o u s e l
  21. 21. 21 Equipments of MH Storage System Performance  Include: - storage capacity - density - accessibility - throughput - utilization - reliability (availibility)
  22. 22. 22 Equipments of MH Storage System Performance… cont  Storage capacity, measured by: - total volumetric space available - total num. of compartments available  Storage density - volumetric space available for actual storage relative to v.s in the storage facility
  23. 23. 23 Equipments of MH Storage System Performance… cont .  System throughput - the hourly rate at which the storage sys. - receives and put loads into storage - retrieves and delivers loads to the o.p station
  24. 24. 24 Equipments of MH Storage System Performance… cont .  Storage transaction; - pick up load at input location - travel to storage location - place load into storage location - travel back to input location
  25. 25. 25 Equipments of MH Storage System Performance… cont .  Retrieval transaction includes; - travel to storage location - pick item from storage - travel to output location - unload at output location
  26. 26. 26 Equipments of MH Storage System Performance… cont .  Utilization: - the proportion of time that the system is actually being used for performing storage and retrieval operations compared with time it is available.  Availability (reliability); - the proportion of time that the system is capable of operating (not broken down) compared with the normal scheduled shift hours.
  27. 27. 27 Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment  Storage equipments: - bulk storage - rack system - shelves and bins - drawer storage - automated storage systems
  28. 28. 28 Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont.  Bulk storage - storage of stock in an open floor area - advantages: highest density possible, lowest possible cost per sq ft - disadvantage: low accessibility
  29. 29. 29 Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont.  Rack systems - stacking unit loads vertically without the need for the loads themselves to provide support. - advantages: low cost, good storage density and accessibility. - the common rack: pallet rack
  30. 30. 30 Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont. Pallet Track System
  31. 31. 31  Other storage rack system: - cantilever racks - portable racks - drive-through racks - flow-through racks Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont.
  32. 32. 32  Shelving & Bin - is a horizontal platform, supported by a wall/frame on which materials are stored  Drawer Storage - modular drawer storage cabinets are available with a variety of drawer depths for different items and are widely used for storage tools and maintenance items Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont.
  33. 33. 33 Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont. Drawer Storage
  34. 34. 34  Automated Storage System - reduce/eliminate of human intervention to operate the system. Load enter or retrieve under computer control. - two general types: Automated Storage/Retrieve System and carousel storage system. Equipments of MH Storage Method and equipment… cont.
  35. 35. 35 Equipments of MH Automated Storage System  AS/RS defined as a storage system that performs storage and retrieval operation with speed and accuracy under a defined degree of automation  Consists of one/more aisles that are each serviced by a storage/retrieval machine
  36. 36. 36 Equipments of MH Automated Storage System… cont.  Objectives for AS/RS: - to increase storage capacity - to increase storage density - to recover factory floor space - to improve security and reduce pilferage - to reduce labor cost and increase labor productivity in storage operation.
  37. 37. 37 Equipments of MH Automated Storage System… cont. - to improve safety in the storage function - to improve control over inventories - to improve stock rotation - to improve customer service - to increase throughput
  38. 38. 38 Equipments of MH Sizing the Automated Storage System  Total storage capacity of one aisle depends on how many storage compartments are arrange horizontally and vertically in the aisle. capacity per aisle = 2nynz where ny = num of load compartments along the length of the aisle
  39. 39. 39 Equipments of MH Sizing the Automated Storage System… cont. AS/RS which ny = 9 and nz=6
  40. 40. 40 Equipments of MH Sizing the Automated Storage System… cont.  Let x = the depth dimension, y = width dimension and z = the height of the unit load. W = 3(x+a) L = ny (y+b) H = nz (z+c) where a, b and c are allowances designed into each compartments to provide clearance.
  41. 41. 41 Equipments of MH Sizing the Automated Storage System… cont.  Eg: Each aisle of a four aisle AS/RS is to contain 60 storage compartments in the length direction and 12 compartments vertically. x=42 in, y=48 in, z=36 in, a=6 in, b=8 in and c=10 in. Determine capacity, W, L and H.
  42. 42. 42 Equipments of MH Sizing the Automated Storage System… cont.  Soln: capacity per aisle = 2 (60)(12) = 1440 unit loads. With 4 aisle, the total capacity = 1440 x 4 = 5760 unit loads. W = 3(42+6) = 144 in = 12 ft/aisle overall W = 4(12) = 48 ft L = 60(48+8)=280 ft H = 12(36+10) = 552 ft
  43. 43. 43 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System  Consists of a series of bins or baskets suspended from an overhead chain conveyor that resolves around a long oval rail system  Horizontal or vertical, sizes range: 10m and 30 m  Application: storage and retrieval operation and transport and accumulation, work in process and unique operation.
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System… cont.  Storage and retrieval operations - effectively when individual items selected from groups of items in storage (pick & load).  Transport and accumulation - used to transport/sort materials as they are stored.  Unique applications - involve specialize eg electrical testing etc.
  46. 46. 46 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System… cont.  Storage capacity: - the size of carousel cab be determined: C = 2(L – W) + πW Where C=circumference of oval conveyor track, L and W are length and width of the track oval.
  47. 47. 47 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System… cont. Top and side view of horizontal storage carousel with 18 carriers (nc) and 4 bins/carrier (nb)
  48. 48. 48 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System… cont.  Let Sc = carrier spacing and nc = num. of carrier; Sc nc = C and Tc = C/4vc + Tpd , Rt = Rc = 60/ Tc Where Tc =S/R cycle time, vc = carousel velocity, Tpd =average time required to pickup
  49. 49. 49 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System… cont.  Eg: The oval rail of a carousel storage system, L=12m, W=1m, 75 carriers equally spaced around the oval, suspended from each carrier are 6 bins. Each bin =0.026m3 volumetric capacity, speed=20m/min. average P&D time for a retrieval=20 sec. Determine volumetric capacity and hourly retrieval rate.
  50. 50. 50 Equipments of MH Carousel Storage System… cont.  Sol: total num. of bins, ncnb = 75x6=450bins tot. volumetric capacity = 450(0.026)=11.7m3 The circumference of the carousel rail, C = 2(12-1) + 1π = 25.14m. Tc= 25.14/4(20) + 20/60 = 0.647min Rt = 60/0.647 = 92.7 retrieval transaction/hr
  51. 51. 51 Equipments of MH Unitizing  Containers used to hold individual items for protection.  Equipment used to load and package the containers.  Examples: wooden pallet, pallet box and tote box.
  52. 52. 52 Equipments of MH Identification & Tracking System  To collect the data in material handling automatically.  There are three basic components: encoder data, machine reader and decoder.  Examples of technologies: bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio frequency tags and machine vision.
  53. 53. 53 Equipments of MH Identification & Tracking System S ta tio n a r y m o v in g b e a m b a r c o d e s c a n n e r lo c a te d a lo n g a m o v in g c o n v e y o r
  54. 54. 54 Material Handling System Design  There are some considerations before design the system as follows: 1. Material characteristics. 2. Flow rate, routing, and scheduling. 3. Plan layout.
  55. 55. 55 Principle of MH  The purpose is to be applicable in the analysis, design and operation of MH system. 1. Planning 2. Standardization 3. Work 4. Ergonomic 5. Unit load 6. Space utilization 7 System 8. Automation 9. Environment 10. Life cycle cost
  56. 56. 56 Automatic Data Capture/Automatic Identification and Data Capture  ADC/AIDC –technologies that provide direct entry of data into a computer.  Drawback: - Error occurs - Time factor - Labor cost
  57. 57. 57 Automatic of identification methods  Components: - encoded data - machine reader/scanner - decoder
  58. 58. 58  ADC technologies categories: - optical - magnetic- magnetic stripe - electromagnetic - RFI - smart card - Touch techniques - Biometric Automatic of identification methods…cont.
  59. 59. 59 Automatic of identification methods…cont. ADC technologies  Radio Frequency Identification (RFI) - widely used to augment bar code identification - comm. between remote bar code and central terminal. - using identification tag which is containing electronically coded data
  60. 60. 60 ADC technologies…cont. RFI - advantages: no physical contact, more data contained, data can be altered - disadvantages: expensive, appropriate for certain environmental situation, high unit values in mfg.
  61. 61. 61 Automatic of identification methods…cont. ADC technologies  Magnetic stripes - is a thin plastic film containing small magnetic particles whose pole orientation can be used to encode bits of data into the film. - advantages: large data storage capacity and the ability to alter the data contained in.
  62. 62. 62  Optical Character Recognition(OCR) - is a machine readable by an optical device. - optical character recognition is a 2D symbology. - advantages: low first read rate and high substitution error rate when hand-held scanning, lack of an omnidirectional scanner for automatic checkpoint and widespread and growing adoption of bar code technology. Automatic of identification methods…cont. ADC technologies
  63. 63. 63 Automatic of identification methods…cont. ADC technologies  Machine Vision - used for automated inspection task. - Machine vision system is required to read 2D matrix symbol. - Can be used for stacked bar code.

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