NORSHAM BINTI LEBAI ITAM
MOHAMAD ARIF BIN MD ZAIN 2007106125
NEDA NASSERI 2007146049
ARK 532 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE IV
AL-NABAWI MOSQUE, MEDINA, SAUDI ARABIA
MUHAMMAD ALI MOSQUE, CAIRO, EGYPT
Introduction on Taman Tamadun Islam, Kuala Terengganu 1
Al-Nabawi Mosque, Saudi Arabia
Muhammad Ali Mosque, Cairo, Egypt
Dating back to the 14th century, Islam had been evidently proselytized in Terengganu, with the ‘Batu Bersurat’ as concrete proof. It is
said that Arab, Indian and Chinese traders had brought Islam with them and it was openly accepted by the rulers and the people in this
The Terengganu River played an important part in this propagation of Islam as the ‘Batu Bersurat’ was found in Kuala Berang, an area
25 miles upstream.Situated on this historic river is the Wan Man Island, which now houses one of Islam’s best kept secrets in Southeast
Asia: the Taman Tamadun Islam (TTI), which literally translates to Islamic Civilization Park.
Plan of Taman Tamadun Islam, Kuala Terengganu
Taman Tamadun Islam, Pulau Wan Man, Kuala Terengganu.
Situated on the Wan Man Island, the TTI’s physical locale is a unique idea in itself. With the lush tropical surrounding of a quaint village
on one side, as well as the gentle sea breeze caressing you on the other, the park is a joy for a leisurely stroll.
Taking up a land area of 22 hectares in total, the park is divided into two zones. Zone A is the gated area which houses the Monument
Park and takes up 10 hectares of the said total while Zone B covers another 12 hectares.Furthermore, an additional of 8.4 hectares of
reclamation land is slotted for the future development.
The monumen park is situated at Zone A where there are 21 mini monuments of an important islamic building and mosque all around
the world. The monuments section is a peek into the past, a reminiscent recollection, as well as a magnificent museum of Islamic
architecture. The monuments are,
• National Mosque, Malaysia
• Kudus Al-Minar Mosque, Indonesia
• Pattani Mosque, Thailand
• Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque, Brunei
• Taj Mahal, India
• Badshahi Mosque, Pakistan
• Dome of The Rock (Qubbah As-Sakhrah),Palestin
• Great Mosque of Samara, Iraq
• Lutfallah Mosque, Iran
• Mausoleum of Abu Nasr Parsa, Afganistan
• The Sacred Mosque (Masjidil Haram), Saudi Arabia
• Aleppo Citadel, Syria
• Mohammad Ali Mosque (Alabaster Mosque), Egypt
• The Prophet’s Mosque (Al-Nabawi), Saudi Arabia
• Suleyman Mosque, Turkey
• The Great Mosque of Qairawan, Tunisia
• Al-Hambra Citadel, Spain
• Kalyan Minaret, Uzbekistan
• Agadez Grand Mosque, Niger
• Kul Sharif Mosque, Russia
• Minaret of Xian, China
The Monument Park
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Arabic: النبوي المسجد "Mosque of the Prophet"), often called the Prophet's Mosque, is a mosque situated
in the city of Medina. As the final resting place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, it is considered the second holiest site in
Islam by Muslims (the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca) and is the second largest mosque in the world.
One of the most notable features of the site is the Green Dome over the center of the mosque, where the tomb of
Muhammad is located. It is not exactly known when the green dome was constructed but manuscripts dating to the early
12th century describe the dome. It is known as the Dome of the Prophet or the Green Dome. Subsequent Islamic rulers
greatly expanded and decorated it. Early Muslim leaders Abu Bakr and Umar are buried in an adjacent area in the mosque.
The site was originally Muhammad's house; he settled there after his Hijra (emigration) to Medina, later building a mosque
on the grounds. He himself shared in the heavy work of construction. The original mosque was an open-air building. The
basic plan of the building has been adopted in the building of other mosques throughout the world.
The mosque also served as a community center, a court, and a religious school. There was a raised platform for the people
who taught the Qur'an.
About The Mosque
The original mosque was built by Muhammad next to the house where he settled after his journey to Medina in 622 AD. The
original mosque was an open-air building with a raised platform for the reading of the Qur'an. It was a rectangular enclosure
of 30 × 35 m (98 × 115 ft), built with palm trunks and mud walls, and accessed through three doors: Bab Rahmah (Door of
Mercy) to the south, Bab Jibril (Door of Gabriel) to the west and Bab al-Nisa' (Door of the Women) to the east. The basic
plan of the building has since been adopted in the building of other mosques throughout the world.
Country: saudi arabia
City: madinah ul munawarah.
Coordinates: 24.468333 degree north, 61.0833 degree east.
Administrators: saudi arabian government.
Leadership: ali ibn abdurrahman al hudhaifi is current leader of mosque
style and design: classical and contemporary islamia, ottomanic, revivalist.
Capacity: 600,000 (increased to 1,000,0000 during the hajj period).
Minarets: total: 10
middle sized: 2
modern and largest: 6
height of largest ones is 105metres (344 ft)
year Event By
622 AD Original mosque was built Prophet Muhammad
629 AD/7H Mosque was doubled in size to accommodate the increasing number of Muslims Prophet Muhammad
Replacing the old structure and building a larger one in its place, incorporating the tomb of Muhammad Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid ibn
Abd al- Malik
778 - 781
Adding 20 doors to the mosque: eight on each of the east and west walls, and four on the north wall.
Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdi
• Rebuilding the western and eastern walls of the mosque and building the northeastern minaret
known as al-Suleymaniyya
• Added a new mihrab (al-Ahnaf) next to Muhammad's mihrab (al-Shafi'iyyah) and placed a new
dome covered in lead sheets and painted green above Muhammad's house and tomb
• Mosque was entirely remodeled with the exception of Muhammad's Tomb, the three mihrabs, the
minbarand the Suleymaniyya minaret.
• The precinct was enlarged to include an ablution area to the north
• The prayer hall to the south was doubled in width and covered with small domes equal in size
except for domes covering the mihrab area, Bab al-Salam and Muhammad's Tomb
• The qibla wall was covered with glazed tiles featuring Qur'anic calligraphy
• The floors of the prayer hall and the courtyard were paved with merble and red stones and a fifth
minaret (al-Majidiyya) was built to the west of the enclosure.
Ottoman Sultan Abdulmecid
• Demolitions around the mosque to make way for new wings to the east and west of the prayer hall,
which consisted of concrete columns with pointed arches.
• Older columns were reinforced with concrete and braced with copper rings at the top
• The Suleymaniyya and Majidiyya minarets were replaced by two minarets in Mamluk revival style
• Two additional minarets were erected to the northeast and northwest of the mosque
• A library was built along the western wall to house historic Qur'ans and other religious texts
King Ibn Saud
1973 & 1981
• ordering the construction of temporary shelters to the west of the mosque to accommodate the
growing number of worshippers in
• The old mosque was surrounded by new prayer areas on these sides, enlarging five times its size
Saudi King Faisal bin Abdul
1921 - 2005
• Greatly increased the size of the mosque, allowing it to hold a large number of worshippers and
pilgrims and adding modern comforts like air conditioning
• Installing twenty seven moving domes at the roof of Masjid Nabawi
As it stands today, the mosque has a rectangular plan on two floor with the Ottoman prayer hall projecting to the south. The
main prayer hall occupies the entire first floor.
The mosque has a flat paved roof topped with 24 domes on square bases. Holes pierced into the base of each dome
illuminate the interior. The roof is also used for prayer during peak times, when the 24 domes slide out on metal tracks to
shade areas of the roof, creating light wells for the prayer hall. At these times, the courtyard of the Ottoman mosque is also
shaded with umbrellas affixed to freestanding columns. The roof is accessed by stairs and escalators. The paved area
around the mosque is also used for prayer, equipped with umbrella tents.
The north facade has three evenly spaced porticos, while the east, west and south facades have two. The walls are
composed of a series of windows topped by pointed arches with black and white voussoirs. There are six peripheral
minarets attached to the new extension, and four others frame the Ottoman structure. The mosque is lavishly decorated
with polychrome marble and stones. The columns are of white marble with brass capitals supporting slightly pointed arches,
built of black and white stones. The column pedestals have ventilation grills that regulate the temperature inside the prayer
The Nabawi mosque style is “hypostyle” which rectangular plans with an enclosed courtyard and covered prayer hall.
(Most early hypostyle mosques had flat roofs on prayer halls, which required the use of numerous columns and supports.)
This mosque is the second
largest in the world and the
courtyard has huge
“umbrellas” that can open
and close according to the
The open courtyard of the
mosque can be shaded by
canopies, designed by
Bodo Rash and Buro
The umbrellas open and
save the pilgrims from the
scorching heat of the sun.
Shield in the Courtyard of Nabawi
The Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha or Alabaster Mosque (Arabic: علي محمد ,مسجد Turkish: Me hm e t Ali Pa a Cam iiş ) is
a mosque situated in the Citadel of Cairo in Egypt and commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha between 1830 and 1848.
Situated on the summit of the citadel, this Ottoman mosque, the largest to be built in the first half of the 19th century, is, with its
animated silhouette and twin minarets, the most visible mosque in Cairo. The mosque was built in memory of Tusun
Pasha, Muhammad Ali's oldest son, who died in 1816.
This mosque, along with the citadel, is one of the landmarks and tourist attractions of Cairo and is one of the first features to be
seen when approaching the city from no matter which side.
The mosque was built on the site of old Mamluk buildings in Cairo's Citadel between 1830 and 1848, although not completed
until the reign of Said Pasha in 1857. The architect was Yusuf Bushnak from Istanbul and its model was the Yeni Mosque in that
city. The ground on which the mosque was erected was built with debris from the earlier buildings of the Citadel.
Before completion of the mosque, the alabaster panels from the upper walls were taken away and used for the palaces of
Abbas I. The stripped walls were clad with wood painted to look like marble.
In 1899 the mosque showed signs of cracking and some inadequate repairs were undertaken. But the condition of the mosque
became so dangerous that a complete scheme of restoration was ordered by King Fuad in 1931 and was finally completed
under King Farouk in 1939.
Muhammad Ali Pasha was buried in a tomb carved from Carrara marble, in the courtyard of the mosque. His body was
transferred here from Hawsh al-Basha in 1857.
Floor plan for Muhammad Ali Mosque
Main prayer hall
Muhammad Ali chose to build his state mosque entirely in the architectural style of his former overlords, the Ottomans, unlike
the Mamluks who, despite their political submission to the Ottomans, stuck to the architectural styles of the previous Mamluk
The mosque was built with a central dome surrounded by four small and four semicircular domes. It was constructed in a
square plan and measured 41x41 meters. The central dome is 21 meters in diameter and the height of the building is 52
meters. Two elegant cylindrical minarets of Turkish type with two balconies and conical caps are situated on the western side
of the mosque, which rise to 82 meters.
The use of this style, combined with the presence of two minarets and multiple half-domes surrounding the central dome —
features reserved for mosques built on the authority of the Sultan — were a defiant declaration of de facto Egyptian
The main material is limestone but the lower storey and forecourt is tiled with alabaster up to 11,3 meters. The external
facades are severe and angular and rise about four storeys until the level of the lead-covered domes.
The mihrab on the southeastern wall is three storeys high and covered with a semicircular dome. There are two arcades on the
second storey, rising on columns and covered with domes. Although there are three entrances on each side of the forecourt,
the usual entry is through the northeastern gate. The forecourt measures 50x50 meters. It is enclosed by arched riwaks rising
on pillars and covered by domes.
There is a brass clock tower in the middle of the northwestern riwak, which was presented to Muhammad Ali by King Louis
Philippe of France in 1845. The clock was reciprocated with the obelisk of Luxor now standing in Place de la Concorde in Paris.
The interior has a measure of 41x41 meters and gives a great feeling of space. The use of two levels of domes gives a much
greater sense of space than there actually is. The central dome rises on four arches standing on colossal piers. There are four
semicircular domes around the central dome. There are four smaller domes on the corners as well. The domes are painted and
embellished with motifs in relief. The walls and pillars are covered with alabaster up to 11 meters high.