CUSTOMER NEEDS: KANO, GARVIN &QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS REDGEMAN@UIDAHO.EDU OFFICE: +1-208-885-4410 DR. RICK EDGEMAN, PROFESSOR & CHAIR – SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT
Six Sigma COPIS Model Outputs Process Inputs Customers Suppliers Steps How does Six Sigma Work?The Voice of the Customer (VOC) is aggressively sought and rigorously evaluated and used to determine needed outputs and hence the optimal process configuration needed to yield those outputs and their necessary inputs for which the best suppliers are identified and allied with. From Concept to Market: the Voice of the Customer
Kano Customer Need Model Delighted Degree of Execution FullyAbsent Implemented Disgusted Stakeholder Satisfaction
Kano Customer Need Model Those needs that are EXPECTED in a productDissatisfiers or service. These are generally not stated by customers but are assumed as given. If they are not present, the customer is dissatisfied. Needs that customers SAY THEY WANT.Satisfiers Fulfilling these needs creates satisfaction. New or Innovative features that customers doExciters / not expect. The presence of such unexpectedDelighters features leads to high perceptions of quality.
Dimensions of Service Quality RELIABILITY: consistency, error-free dependability RESPONSIVENESS: willingness to help the customer TANGIBLES: environment for the service presented COMPETENCE: the right skills and knowledge required COURTESY: supplier’s behavior SECURITY: freedom from danger or risk ACCESS: ease of making contact COMMUNICATION: understandable to the customer EMPATHY: adopting the customer’s viewpoint
Define the problem and Define customer requirements. Measure defect rates and document the process in its current incarnation.Control Measure Analyze process data and determine the capability of the process. Improve the process and remove defect causes. Improve Analyze Control process performance and ensure that defects do not recur. Six Sigma Innovation
Japanese/US EngineeringInnovation & QFD Change Comparison Introduction of Design Changes First Product Japanese (Using QFD) United States (Not Using QFD) 3 months out 20-24 out 1-3 months months out 14-17 months in production market introduction TimeQFD Can Reduce Both Costs and Start-Up Time
Quality Function Deployment Hin Shitsu Ki No Ten Kai "A group of courageous people working in harmony pursuing the finestdetail to unlock the organization and roll out products that the multitudes in the marketplace will value." Glenn Mazur
Quality Function Deployment Is a structured method that is intended to transmit and translate customer requirements, that is, the Voice of the Customer through each stage of the product development and production process, that is, through the product realization cycle. These requirements are the collection of customer needs, including all satisfiers, exciters/delighters, and dissatisfiers.
Creative Definitions of QFD A systematic way of documenting and breaking down customer needs into manageable and actionable detail. A planning methodology that organizes relevant information to facilitate better decision making. A way of reducing the uncertainty involved in product and process design. A technique that promotes cross-functional teamwork. A methodology that gets the right people together, early, to work efficiently and effectively to meet customers’ needs.
Key Thought Quality Function Deployment is aValuable Decision Support Tool, But it is Not a Decision Maker Throughout
WHAT DOES QFD DO?CONCEPT CUSTOMER Better Designs in Half the Time! Plan Design Redesign Manufacture “Traditional Timeline” Plan Design Redesign Manufacture Benefits QFD is a Productivity Enhancer
PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS Why Does QFD Work? DESIGN PRODUCTION IMPROVE 10:1 PRODUCT LOW VISIBILITY TIME HIGH VISIBILITY LOW REWARD HIGH REWARD The Quality Lever
When is QFD Appropriate? Poor communications and expectations get lost in the complexity of product development. Lack of structure or logic to the allocation of product development resources. Lack of efficient and / or effective product / process development teamwork. Extended development time caused by excessive redesign, problem solving, or fire fighting.
Brief History of QFD Origin - Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard 1972 Developed By Toyota and Its Suppliers Expanded To Other Japanese Manufacturers Consumer Electronics, Home Appliances, Clothing, Integrated Circuits, Apartment Layout Planning Adopted By Ford and GM in 1980s Digital Equipment, Hewlett-Packard, AT&T, ITT Foundation - Belief That Products Should Be Designed To Reflect Customer Desires and Tastes
Quality Function Deployment’s House of Quality Correlation 6 Matrix 3 Design AttributesThe House Importance Rankings 2 5 1 Relationships Customerof Quality Customer Needs 4 between Customer Needs Perceptions and Design Attributes 7 Costs/Feasibility Establishes the Flowdown Relates WHATS & HOWS 8 Ranks The Importance Engineering Measures
The House of Quality Key Elements Informational Elements Two Types of Elements in Each House
QFD Flowdown Manufacturing Software ServiceLevels Of Granularity Environment Environment Environment Customer Wants Customer Wants Customer Wants Technical Requirements Product Functionality Service Requirements Part Characteristics System Characteristics Service Processes Manufacturing Process Design Alternatives Process Controls Production Requirements Flowdown Relates The Houses To Each Other
Building the House of Quality1. Identify Customer Attributes2. Identify Design Attributes / Requirements3. Relate the customer attributes to the design attributes.4. Conduct an Evaluation of Competing Products.5. Evaluate Design Attributes and Develop Targets.6. Determine which Design Attributes to Deploy in the Remainder of the Process.
1. Identify Customer Attributes These are product or service requirements IN THE CUSTOMER’S TERMS. Market Research; Surveys; Focus Groups. “What does the customer expect from the product?” “Why does the customer buy the product?” Salespeople and Technicians can be important sources of information – both in terms of these two questions and in terms of product failure and repair. OFTEN THESE ARE EXPANDED INTO Secondary and Tertiary Needs / Requirements.
- “Whats” What Does The Customer Want Customer Needs CTQs Need 1 Ys Need 2 Need 3 Key Elements Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 Voice of the Customer
Customer RequirementsKey Elements: How Important the What’s are TO THE CUSTOMER Customer Ranking of their Needs Need 1 5 Need 2 5 Need 3 3 Need 4 4 Need 5 2 Need 6 4 Need 7 1 Voice of the Customer
2. Identify Design Attributes. Design Attributes are Expressed in the Language of the Designer / Engineer and Represent the TECHNICAL Characteristics (Attributes) that must be Deployed throughout the DESIGN, MANUFACTURING, and SERVICE PROCESSES. These must be MEASURABLE since the Output will be Controlled and Compared to Objective Targets. The ROOF of the HOUSE OF QUALITY shows, symbolically, the Interrelationships between Design Attributes.
How Do You Satisfy the Customer What’s- Product Requirements HOW 3 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 HOW 7 Translation For ActionKey Elements Hows X’s “How’s” Need 1 5 Need 2 5 Need 3 3 WHATS HOWS Need 4 4 Need 5 2 Need 6 4 Need 7 1 Satisfing Customer Needs
Correlation Correlation Matrix Impact Of The How’s On Each Other Matrix Strong Positive Information – Positive Negative HOW 5 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 6 HOW 7 Strong Negative Need 1 5 H L L M 65 Need 2 5 H 45 Need 3 3 M M L 21 Need 4 4 H 36 Need 5 2 L M 8 Need 6 4 M L H 52 Need 7 1 L M 4 40 psi 3 mils 1 mm 8 atm 12 in. 3 lbs 3 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 Conflict Resolution
3.Relating Customer & Design Attributes Symbolically we determine whether there is NO relationship, a WEAK one, MODERATE one, or STRONG relationship between each Customer Attribute and each Design Attribute. The PURPOSE it to determine whether the final Design Attributes adequately cover Customer Attributes. LACK of a strong relationship between A customer attribute and any design attribute shows that the attribute is not adequately addressed or that the final product will have difficulty in meeting the expressed customer need. Similarly, if a design attribute DOES NOT affect any customer attribute, then it may be redundant or the designers may have missed some important customer attribute.
Strength of the Interrelation Between the What’s and the How’s Relationship HKey Elements: Strong 9 M Medium 3 L Weak 1 HOW 7 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 Transfer Function Y = f(X) Need 1 5 H L L M Need 2 5 H Need 3 3 M M L Need 4 4 H Need 5 2 L M Need 6 4 M L H Need 7 1 L M Untangling The Web
4. Add Market Evaluation & Key Selling Points This step includes identifying importance ratings for each customer attribute AND evaluating existing products / services for each of the attributes. Customer importance ratings represent the areas of greatest interest and highest expectations AS EXPRESSED BY THE CUSTOMER. Competitive evaluation helps to highlight the absolute strengths and weaknesses in competing products. This step enables designers to seek opportunities for improvement and links QFD to a company’s strategic vision and allows priorities to be set in the design process.
5. Evaluate Design Attributes of Competitive Products & Set Targets. This is USUALLY accomplished through in-house testing and then translated into MEASURABLE TERMS. The evaluations are compared with the competitive evaluation of customer attributes to determine inconsistency between customer evaluations and technical evaluations. For example, if a competing product is found to best satisfy a customer attribute, but the evaluation of the related design attribute indicates otherwise, then EITHER the measures used are faulty, OR else the product has an image difference that is affecting customer perceptions. On the basis of customer importance ratings and existing product strengths and weaknesses, TARGETS and DIRECTIONS for each design attribute are set.
Target Values for theInformation: How Much How’s Note the Units HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 HOW 7 Need 1 5 H L L M 65 Need 2 5 H 45 Need 3 3 M M L 21 Need 4 4 H 36 Need 5 2 L M 8 Need 6 4 M L H 52 Need 7 1 L M 4 40 psi 3 mils 1 mm 8 atm 12 in. 3 lbs How Much 3 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 Consistent Comparison
Target Direction Information On The HOWSInformation : More Is Better Less Is Better HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 HOW 7 Specific Amount Need 1 5 H L L M 65 Need 2 5 H 45 Need 3 3 M M L 21 Need 4 4 H 36 Need 5 2 L M 8 Need 6 4 M L H 52 Need 7 1 L M 4 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 The Best Direction
6. Select Design Attributes to be Deployed in the Remainder of the Process This means identifying the design attributes that: have a strong relationship to customer needs, have poor competitive performance, or are strong selling points. These attributes will need to be DEPLOYED or TRANSLATED into the language of each function in the design and production process so that proper actions and controls are taken to ensure that the voice of the customer is maintained. Those attributes not identified as critical do not need such rigorous attention.
Technical Importance Which How’s are Key Where Should The Focus Lie “CI” = “Customer Importance” Key Elements: “Strength” is measured on a 9, 3, 1, HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 HOW 7 0 Scale Need 1 CI 45 5 5 15 Need 2 5 45 Need 3 3 9 9 3 Need 4 4 36 Need 5 2 2 6 Need 6 4 12 4 36 Need 7 1 1 M TI = Scolumn (CI *Strength) 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 Ranking The HOWS
Completeness: Are All The How’sKey Elements Captured HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 HOW 7 Is A What Really A How Need 1 CI H L L M 65 Need 2 5 H 45 Need 3 3 M M L 21 Need 4 4 H 36 Need 5 2 L M 8 Need 6 4 M L H 52 Need 7 1 L M 4 CC = S (CI *Strength) row 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 Have We Captured the HOWS
Using the House of QualityThe voice of the customer MUST be carriedTHROUGHOUT the production process.Three other “houses of quality” are used to do this and,together with the first, these carry the customer’s voicefrom its initial expression, through design attributes,on to component attributes, to process operations, andeventually to a quality control and improvement plans.In Japan, all four are used.The tendency in the West is to use only the first one ortwo.
1 Design AttributesAttributesCustomer 2 Attributes Component Attributes Design 3 Component Process Operations Attributes 4 Quality Control Plan The How’s at One Level Become the What’s at the Next Level
The Cascading Voice of the Customer NOTES: “Design Attributes” are also called “Functional Requirements” “Component Attributes” are also called “Part Characteristics” “Process Operations” are also called “Manufacturing Processes” and the “Quality Control Plan” refers to “Key Process Variables. HOWS Y Critical to Quality Characteristics (CTQs) Key Manufacturing Processes X Key Process Variables
Common QFD Pitfalls QFD On Everything Set the “Right” Granularity Don’t Apply To Every Last Project Inadequate Priorities Lack of Teamwork Wrong Participants Lack of Team Skills Lack of Support or Commitment Too Much “Chart Focus” “Hurry up and Get Done” Failure to Integrate and Implement QFD
Review Current Status At Least Quarterly Monthly on 1 Yr Project Weekly on Small Projects HOW 6 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 7 65Need 1 5 H L L MNeed 2 5 H 45Need 3 3 M M L 21Need 4 4 H 36 TheNeed 5 2 L M 8Need 6 4 52 1 M L HNeed 7 4 L M “Static” 40 psi 3 mils 1 mm 8 atm 12 in. 3 lbs 3 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 QFD
Points to Remember The process may look simple, but requires effort. Many entries look obvious—after they’re written down. If there are NO “tough spots” the first time: It Probably Isn’t Being Done Right!!!! Focus on the end-user customer. Charts are not the objective. Charts are the means for achieving the objective. Find reasons to succeed, not excuses for failure. Remember to follow-up afterward
CUSTOMER NEEDS: KANO, GARVIN &QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT End of Session DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS REDGEMAN@UIDAHO.EDU OFFICE: +1-208-885-4410 DR. RICK EDGEMAN, PROFESSOR & CHAIR – SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT