In search of theconceptualization and measurement of SOCIAL INNOVATION<br />1<br />Mónica Edwards-Schachter, Phd.<br />Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management (INGENIO, CSIC-UPV)<br />firstname.lastname@example.org<br />
SI: Anapproachfor a new nature (and new measurementproblems) of innovation ?
SI as researchtopic: Withinoroutside of theinnovationstudiesfield?
Developingindicators of SI: Exploring “social places and spaces”
Final comments …</li></ul>2<br />Keynotes<br />
3<br />Focus: What is Social Innovation? <br /><ul><li>SI is an outstanding paradigm that is increasingly attracting the interest of research, organizations and policy makers (Andrew & Klein, 2010; EU/The Young Foundation, 2010; Howaldt &Schwartz, 2010; Hubert, 2010)
The Renewed Social Agenda (EC 2008) emphasizes the role of SI as an opportunity to address Europe’sresponse to new social realities and promoting a better quality of life.
SI is seen as a powerful instrument to address the economic crisis (and “other” global crisis) requiring both quick solutions to pressing social problems and the long term development of a sustainable social system (BEPA, 2009).</li></li></ul><li>4<br />But …<br /><ul><li>The concept ofsocial innovation is often used interchangeablywith a number of different topics including </li></ul>innovation activities in the non-profit sector, <br /> social entrepreneurship, <br /> social economy, <br /> social enterprise … <br /> (Moulaert et al, 2005; Mulgan et al., 2007; Rodríguez & Alvarado, 2008; Andrew & Klein, 2010; Howaldt & Shwarz, 2010). <br />
5<br />TheSOCIAL side of TECHNOLOGICAL innovation?<br />TheTECHNOLOGICAL side of SOCIAL innovation?<br />DIFUSSION OF INNOVATION?<br />SOCIAL IMPACT OF INNOVATION?<br />
6<br />SI: An approach for a new nature (and new measurement problems) of innovation ?<br /><ul><li>Mulgan (2006:8) affirms that “Social innovation refers to innovative activities and services that are motivated by the goal of meeting a social need and that are predominantly diffused through organizations whose primary purposes are social”.
Phills et al. (2008) have underlined the mechanisms involved in bringing about positive social change, bolstered by the “cross-fertilization” of the non-profit, government, and business sectors
For MacCallum et al. (2009:1)- is an anchor concept for research in creative arts, human organization, economic diversity, neighbourhood regeneration, regional renaissance, governanceand other areas”.</li></li></ul><li>7<br />SI: An approach for a new nature (and new measurement problems) of innovation ?<br /><ul><li>A recent report of The Young Foundation (2010, p. 10) identifies four drivers of future innovation: </li></ul>Co-creating value with customers and tapping knowledge about users; <br />Global knowledge sourcing and collaborative networks; <br />Global challenges as a driver of innovation; <br />Public sector challenges as a driver of innovation<br />
8<br />SI: An approach for a new nature (and new measurement problems) of innovation ?<br /><ul><li>In words of Howaldt and Schwarz (2010) “innovations are deliberative interventions designed to initiate and establish future developments concerning technology, economics, and social practices”
How can people act as lead users and contribute to social innovation?
How can share social innovation best practices?
How to measure social innovation …?</li></li></ul><li>9<br />SI as research topic: Within or outside the innovation field?<br /><ul><li>The introduction of the social to innovation –and viceversa, as well as of innovation to the social– has been considered from multiple research perspectives, embracing social science and economic literatures, as well as in the socio-political practice (Brooks 1982).
Brooks (1982) has analyzed the social dimensions of invention and innovation,classifying social inventions and innovations as market, managerial, political, or institutional. When distinguishing between "pure social inventions and innovations, socio-technical system innovations, and pure technical innovations" he cautionsthat "there are no entirely pure types"</li></li></ul><li>10<br /><ul><li>“Schumpeter underscores the necessity of social innovation occurring in tandem in both the economic arena as well as in culture, politics and a society's way of life in order to guarantee the economic efficacy of technical innovations” (Howaldt & Schwarz , 2010: p. 9) .
However, the mention of social innovation in literature after Schumpeteris rare and only marginal and the focus is essentially in technological innovations.
The presence of SI in innovation research literature is still scarce and marginal …</li></ul>But …<br />
11<br />Developing indicators of SI<br /><ul><li>Murray et al. (2009) in their working paper “How to innovate: The tools for social innovation” list260 methods, processes and examples of social innovation in their proposal of social economy framework.</li></li></ul><li>12<br />Developing indicators of SI<br /><ul><li>Indicators
Measurement should “capture” the different aspects </li></ul> of the phenomena<br /><ul><li>In-puts ... Needs to building “social innovation capabilities” ?
Process ...Problems with indicators of “traditional” innovations
(technological, in services, organizational ...) !
Out-puts... Values co-generation, quality of life, well-being </li></ul>improvement, ... diffusion and Impact? <br />
13<br />EXAMPLE 1 Bringing light to the poor: “A litre of light” projecthttp://isanglitrongliwanag.org/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-14967535<br />Eco-entrepreneurs students from MIT using 2-liter soda bottles and bleach to bring a 60 watt light bulb's worth of light into the building below. <br />A bit of brightness into the lives of the country's poorest people in the Philippines. <br />
14<br />EXAMPLE 2 CVidahttp://www.cvida.comhttp://es-es.facebook.com/CvidaVilareal<br />CVidaVilareal is an association of multiple actors in the city of Vilareal (Castellon, Spain) . <br /><ul><li>Goals</li></ul> The improvement of people’s quality of life and the creation of employment. <br /> The city as a local social innovation space. <br />
FINAL COMMENTS …<br /><ul><li>Social Innovation is a multi-faceted concept which can be placed at the intersection of spontaneous and rationally organized movements at the micro, meso or macro levels of society (bottom-up).
Further research on social innovation will be important in order to increase our understanding of the concept and theoretical interrelationships between technological, non-technological and social innovation (and the development of appropriate measurement methodologies and instruments).
Part of innovation studies … or a new discipline?</li></li></ul><li>FINAL COMMENTS …<br /><ul><li>In Cvida initiative, our principal purpose is to explore the transformational potential of mechanisms of the process of collective action and urban governance practices, promoting both the intentional cross-sector fertilization and a system-building or “scaffolding” endeavour that accomplishes the mechanisms of social innovation.
We are also exploring the development of indicators, considering in-puts, process and out-puts ...</li></li></ul><li>References<br /><ul><li>ANDREW, C. and KLEIN, J. L. (2010). Social Innovation: Whatisit and whyisitimportanttounderstanditbetter. ET10003. Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation. Toronto. Cahiers du Centre de recherche sur les innovations sociales (CRISBROOKS, H. (1982). ES). CollectionÉtudesthéoriques, no ET1003.
BROOKS, H. (1982). Social and technological innovation. In Lundstedt, Sven B. and Colglazier, E. William, Jr. (Eds.), Managing innovation. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, 9-10.
EUROPEAN UNION/THE YOUNG FOUNDATION. (YF) (2010). Study on social innovation. Report prepared by the Social Innovation eXchange (SIX) and the Young Foundation for the Bureau of European Policy Advisors.
HOWALDT, J. and SCHWARTZ, M. (2010). Social innovation: concepts, research fields and international trends. Report of ESF, EU and Aachen University. Dortmund, May 2010.
HUBERT, A. (2010). Empowering people, driving change: Social innovation in the European Union.