Cs 435


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CS 435 Troubleshooting ..

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Cs 435

  1. 1. CS 435 Computer Hardware Troubleshooting
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the major components of a PC system </li></ul><ul><li>Define how these components work </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the boot processes </li></ul><ul><li>Understand basic PC terminology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Personal Computer <ul><li>(PC) was introduced in the late 1970s and early 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>The PC is a scaled-down version of a mainframe or mini-computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the operational components of a large computer system is present in a PC, </li></ul>
  4. 4. SYSTEM OVERVIEW <ul><li>When first conceived, the computer was designed to provide the same functionality as the human brain. </li></ul><ul><li>It has developed into a machine that can perform some of the same tasks as a person. </li></ul><ul><li>The case and power supply house, much as the human body houses the brain and vital organs and provides energy to those components. </li></ul>
  5. 5. STANDARD EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Case, motherboard, processor, RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Hard drive </li></ul><ul><li>I/O cards </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard and mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  6. 6. Case/Power Supply <ul><li>Is the shell that houses and provides power to all the PC’s internal components. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, all PCs were housed in cases that sat on the desktop. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XT – 1st Smaller case because it housed the original IBM-compatible PC and XT PC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AT – 2nd IBM-compatible case PC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger footprint than the XT case and was designed with a larger, higher-wattage power supply that could support more devices and I/O cards. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tower-style cases were developed. These cases stand vertically and can be placed next to the monitor or on the floor under the desk. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Motherboard and Processor <ul><li>head </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>providing connection from the brain to the rest of the body. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The processor, also called the Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The brain of the PC and plugs into a socket on the motherboard. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Motherboard <ul><li>Is the largest board in the computer case and is mounted to the case. </li></ul><ul><li>The battery, CMOS, BIOS, processor chip socket, RAM chip sockets, and bus connectors are located on the motherboard. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Processor <ul><li>Plugs into a custom socket on the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Different sockets are needed for different processors. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual “brain” of a computer and performs all the computer’s mathematical computations. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>**Intel 8088 processor - Original IBM-compatible PC. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Memory <ul><li>Memory in the human body is a component of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) is typically plugged into the motherboard and provides a fast storage area for the processor to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul>
  11. 11. HardDrive <ul><li>Is a permanent mass-storage memory device used to store applications and data when they’re not needed by the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Volatile </li></ul><ul><li>The interface cards, known as Input/Output (I/O) cards, provide an interface from the processor to external components and are comparable to the arms, legs, eyes, ears, and mouth of a person. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CMOS/BIOS CHIP <ul><li>CMOS chip </li></ul><ul><li>Stores hardware configuration information while the PC is turned off and is powered by a small battery. </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS chip </li></ul><ul><li>Is a non-destructive memory chip that stores the Power On Self Test (POST) and a basic communications program. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>known as a bootstrap loader . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Memory <ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Plugs into the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Processor runs programs from RAM </li></ul><ul><li>RAM provides a fast working area where the processor stores data while performing computations. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Video Subsystem <ul><li>Is responsible for displaying information on the monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>Is responsible for displaying information on the monitor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor resolution - is measured in pixels; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixel - is the smallest addressable point on a monitor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot pitch - The size of the pixel for the monitor. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Video Card Types <ul><li>MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) </li></ul><ul><li>CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) </li></ul><ul><li>EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a digital signal to the monitor, which converts it to analog and displays it on the screen. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Video Card Types <ul><li>VGA (Video Graphics Adapter) </li></ul><ul><li>SVGA (Super VGA) </li></ul><ul><li>AGP (Advanced Graphic Port) and other graphics adapters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an analog signal to the monitor. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. THE BOOT PROCESS <ul><li>When power is first applied to a PC, the system must perform a number of tasks before the user can use the computer. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Steps involved in the boot process <ul><li>Power is applied. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU sends out an initialization (INIT) signal. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU loads the program stored in the BIOS into RAM and runs the program. </li></ul><ul><li>POST results are compared to information in CMOS. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU tells the boot disk drive to load the operating system and run it. </li></ul><ul><li>The motherboard has a small IC chip, known as the CMOS chip, which is powered by a battery. The CMOS chip stores the hardware configuration information along with the current date and time. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Analogy <ul><li>If you -- want to work on a document, you take it out of a file cabinet -- and place it on your desk --, make whatever changes need to be made, then place the document back in the file cabinet. The size of your desktop determines how big a document you can place on the desktop, just as the amount of installed RAM determines how many applications and how much data can be in active memory at one time. </li></ul>
  20. 20. TY =)