Nazi Germany                 Initial             Consolidation               of Power               1933-34Monday, 18 Marc...
Gleichschaltung                         "coordination",                         "making the same",                        ...
GLEISCHALTUNG is the process of        Nazification of German political, social,        economic and cultural life from 193...
One people, one empire, one leaderMonday, 18 March 13
Hitler established a one-party dictatorship         to realise the Nazi ideology of         Volsgemeinshaft, a racially un...
The period from 1933 to 1937 was            characterised by the systematic            elimination of non-Nazi organisatio...
The Nazis used the term       “Gleichschaltung” to refers to the specific       legal measures taken by the government     ...
November election,                           1932Monday, 18 March 13
November election,                           1932       Hitler’s attempts to become Chancellor       are rebuffed by Hinde...
Work and food, 1932Monday, 18 March 13
January                                          28, 1933       Despite his earlier reservations, President Hindenburg    ...
January                                            30, 1933                      Hitler is appointed Chancellor.          ...
January      30, 1933     From a window in the Reich Chancellery, German     president Paul von Hindenburg watches thousan...
New York Times, January 31, 1933         “HITLER MADE CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY BUT         COALITION CABINET LIMITS POWER; CE...
"It is almost like a dream – a fairytale.          The new [Third] Reich has been          born. Fourteen years of work ha...
Monday, 18 March 13
Under the Weimar Constitution, the chancellor had     little political power and was little more than a     chairman.     ...
"Within two months we will             have pushed Hitler so far in             the corner that hell squeak."             ...
The infighting and jockeying for power       had led the Conservatives to make a       massive political miscalculation - w...
Monday, 18 March 13
February           4, 1933         “Decree for the Protection of the German People,” issued,         using Article 48 - gi...
February            22, 1933          Göering (Minister of the Interior for Prussia) has          control of the police   ...
February                  27, 1933        “Democracy burns” - the infamous burning of        the Reichstag.        This ev...
February           27, 1933       The alleged arsonist was Marinus van der Lubbe, a       young Dutch Communist of questio...
This is the beginning of the Communist       revolution! We must not wait a minute.       We will show no mercy. Every    ...
February          27, 1933          Decree for the Protection of the People and the State of          February 28. Popular...
The “Decree for the Protection of the       German People,” was a significant step to       establishing a one-party Nazi d...
March 5,         1933      General election, NSDAP win only 44% of the vote.      Whilst they are unable to win a clear ma...
March         23, 1933         The Enabling Act, a law giving Hitler dictatorial         powers, was passed. This “Law to ...
Otto Wels, leaders of the SPD,                           had his citizenship revoked in                           1933 and...
March-         April, 1934       March 4 - SA raids on gay bars       March 11 - SA attack Jewish-owned shops       March ...
April 26,        1933        The Nazis took over state and local government. The Nazis        started to replace anti-Nazi...
Monday, 18 March 13
May 2,         1933       The Trade Unions offices were closed, their       money confiscated, and their leaders put in pris...
May 10,         1933       In 34 university towns across Germany, the “German       Student Association” of Nazi Germany c...
“     The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is now at an end.      The breakthrough of the German revolution has again...
July 14,        1933     The "Law against the establishment of political parties"     declared the Nazi Party to be the co...
April 24,       1934        Peoples Courts - Hitler sets up the Nazi peoples        courts where judges have to swear an o...
David Low, 1934, “They salute with both hands now         June 30,         1934     Night of the Long Knives - members of ...
August           19, 1934         When Hindenburg died, Hitler assumed the office         of President and leader of the ar...
SOURCES  http://mitchellarchives.com/hitler-becomes-chancellor-of-  germany.htm   http://www.slideshare.net/duanegalle/hit...
http://www.berlin.de/2013/en/portraits/selected-portraits/wels-otto/   http://www.stormfront.org/forum/t431741-8/   http:/...
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/   nazi_genocide_timeline/index_embed.shtml   http://www.docstoc.com/do...
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Gleischaltung

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Gleischaltung

  1. 1. Nazi Germany Initial Consolidation of Power 1933-34Monday, 18 March 13
  2. 2. Gleichschaltung "coordination", "making the same", "bringing into line" "forcible-coordination"Monday, 18 March 13
  3. 3. GLEISCHALTUNG is the process of Nazification of German political, social, economic and cultural life from 1933 onwards.Monday, 18 March 13
  4. 4. One people, one empire, one leaderMonday, 18 March 13
  5. 5. Hitler established a one-party dictatorship to realise the Nazi ideology of Volsgemeinshaft, a racially unified and hierarchically society in which the interests of individuals would be strictly subordinate to those of the nation, or Volk.Monday, 18 March 13
  6. 6. The period from 1933 to 1937 was characterised by the systematic elimination of non-Nazi organisations that could potentially influence people, such as trade unions, political parties and religious groups.Monday, 18 March 13
  7. 7. The Nazis used the term “Gleichschaltung” to refers to the specific legal measures taken by the government from the first months following January 30, 1933, when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. It is through this process that Germany becomes a fascist state.Monday, 18 March 13
  8. 8. November election, 1932Monday, 18 March 13
  9. 9. November election, 1932 Hitler’s attempts to become Chancellor are rebuffed by Hindenburg who said: A presidential cabinet led by you would inevitably develop into a party dictatorship with all the consequences of drastic intensification of the antagonism within the German nationMonday, 18 March 13
  10. 10. Work and food, 1932Monday, 18 March 13
  11. 11. January 28, 1933 Despite his earlier reservations, President Hindenburg agrees appoint Hitler as Chancellor in a bid to end the ongoing political instability (in the previous year there had been 4 elections in 8 months)Monday, 18 March 13
  12. 12. January 30, 1933 Hitler is appointed Chancellor. "We have the power. Now our gigantic work begins."Monday, 18 March 13
  13. 13. January 30, 1933 From a window in the Reich Chancellery, German president Paul von Hindenburg watches thousands of Nazis in a torchlight parade to celebrate of Hitlers appointment as German Chancellor.Monday, 18 March 13
  14. 14. New York Times, January 31, 1933 “HITLER MADE CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY BUT COALITION CABINET LIMITS POWER; CENTRISTS HOLD BALANCE IN REICHSTAG.”  After losing several elections to President Von Hindenburg, Franz von Papen makes a deal with the WWI general to make Adolf Hitler, leader of the National Socialist Party, Chancellor of Germany even though they don’t have a majority in the Reichstag.  The story includes this fascinating statement: “The composition of the Cabinet leaves Herr Hitler no scope for gratification of any dictatorial ambition.” Yet, the front page also contains a story by the AP headed, “HITLER PLEDGES FIGHT IN CABINET.” The Nazi statement says, in part, “After a thirteen-year struggle the National Socialist movement has succeeded in breaking through to the government; the struggle to win the German nation, however, is only the beginning.”Monday, 18 March 13
  15. 15. "It is almost like a dream – a fairytale. The new [Third] Reich has been born. Fourteen years of work have been crowned with victory. The German revolution has begun!" Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary Jan. 30, 1933Monday, 18 March 13
  16. 16. Monday, 18 March 13
  17. 17. Under the Weimar Constitution, the chancellor had little political power and was little more than a chairman. Cabinet decisions were made by majority vote and there were 8 Conservative politicians and two Nazis: Frick and Goering These two factors meant that the Conservatives (made of the Reichswehr, industrialists and Junkers), led by von Papen, believed they could use the Nazis to get control of Germany and end the rising support for Communists (up from 80 to 100 seats in the Nov, ’32 election)Monday, 18 March 13
  18. 18. "Within two months we will have pushed Hitler so far in the corner that hell squeak." von Papen, 1933Monday, 18 March 13
  19. 19. The infighting and jockeying for power had led the Conservatives to make a massive political miscalculation - within two years Hitler destroyed all who stood in his way and many who had supported him were dead (SA leaders, von Schleicher), in concentration camps or under house arrest (von Papen)Monday, 18 March 13
  20. 20. Monday, 18 March 13
  21. 21. February 4, 1933 “Decree for the Protection of the German People,” issued, using Article 48 - gives govt. temporary powers to: •prohibit public meetings •suppress publications deemed “dangerous” •ban strikes in vital areas. •expanded powers of arrest, This decree allowed the government to round up Communist and Social Democratic candidates in the weeks leading up to the March general elections.Monday, 18 March 13
  22. 22. February 22, 1933 Göering (Minister of the Interior for Prussia) has control of the police Göering replaces hundreds of police officials with Nazis Göering set up an auxiliary police force (Hilfspolizei) of 50,000 men, composed mostly of members of the SA and SS.Monday, 18 March 13
  23. 23. February 27, 1933 “Democracy burns” - the infamous burning of the Reichstag. This event is seen as a pivotal moment in the beginning of Nazi Germany.Monday, 18 March 13
  24. 24. February 27, 1933 The alleged arsonist was Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist of questionable sanity; he was arrested on the spot and executed the following year. Nazi officials immediately claimed the fire was an attempt by the Communists to overthrow the government and took drastic action.Monday, 18 March 13
  25. 25. This is the beginning of the Communist revolution! We must not wait a minute. We will show no mercy. Every Communist official must be shot, where he is found. Every Communist deputy must this very day be strung up." Hermann GoeringMonday, 18 March 13
  26. 26. February 27, 1933 Decree for the Protection of the People and the State of February 28. Popularly known as the Reichstag Fire Decree Hitler convinced Hindenburg to use Article 48 to permanently suspend civil liberties protected by the Weimar Constitution These included: habeus corpus right to assembly freedom of speech freedom of the press all restraints on police investigationsMonday, 18 March 13
  27. 27. The “Decree for the Protection of the German People,” was a significant step to establishing a one-party Nazi dictatorship •Thousands were imprisoned in the days following the fire, including leading KPD (Communists), Social Democrats and trade unionists •March and April 1933 alone, over 45,000 women and men were taken in so-called protective custody and incarcerated in prisons and newly established concentration camps,Monday, 18 March 13
  28. 28. March 5, 1933 General election, NSDAP win only 44% of the vote. Whilst they are unable to win a clear majority, the election gives the NSDAP a sense of legitimacy despite the fact that other parties were prevented from campaigning by new laws and SA violenceMonday, 18 March 13
  29. 29. March 23, 1933 The Enabling Act, a law giving Hitler dictatorial powers, was passed. This “Law to Remedy the Distress of the People and the Reich”, allowed Hitler’s government to pass laws without approval of the Reichstag or President.Monday, 18 March 13
  30. 30. Otto Wels, leaders of the SPD, had his citizenship revoked in 1933 and fled to Paris Social Democratic Party (SPD), the only party to vote against the Enabling Act, was banned. Its members were stripped of their citizenship (above) or arrested. All other parties disbanded to avoid persecution, arrest and being sent to concentration camps.Monday, 18 March 13
  31. 31. March- April, 1934 March 4 - SA raids on gay bars March 11 - SA attack Jewish-owned shops March 20 - Nazis build Dachau, first permanent concentration camp March 26 - Hitler calls for boycott of Jewish shops April 1 - SA prevent people from entering Jewish shops April 7 - Jews and dissenters banned from civil service April 21 - Kosher tradition outlawed April 25 - quotas introduced on Jewish children in schoolsMonday, 18 March 13
  32. 32. April 26, 1933 The Nazis took over state and local government. The Nazis started to replace anti-Nazi civil servants, teachers and University professors.   Hitler set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and encouraged Germans to report opponents.   Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants, Jehovahs Witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for crimes as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or saying that business was bad. Monday, 18 March 13
  33. 33. Monday, 18 March 13
  34. 34. May 2, 1933 The Trade Unions offices were closed, their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison.   In their place, Hitler put the German Labour Front (DAF) which reduced workers pay and took away the right to strike.Monday, 18 March 13
  35. 35. May 10, 1933 In 34 university towns across Germany, the “German Student Association” of Nazi Germany ceremonially burnt 45,000 books in an attempt to “purify” the German language and culture. The books by liberal, anarchist, socialist, pacifist, communist, Jewish, and other authors were viewed as “degenerate” or subversive or whose ideologies undermined the National Socialism.Monday, 18 March 13
  36. 36. “ The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is now at an end. The breakthrough of the German revolution has again cleared the way on the German path...The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character. It is to this end that we want to educate you. As a young person, to already have the courage to face the pitiless glare, to overcome the fear of death, and to regain respect for death - this is the task of this young generation. And thus you do well in this midnight hour to commit to the flames the evil spirit of the past. This is a strong, great and symbolic deed - a deed which should document the following for the world to know - Here the intellectual foundation of the November Republic is sinking to the ground, but from this wreckage the phoenix of a new spirit will triumphantly rise. ” — Joseph Goebbels,  Speech to the students in BerlinMonday, 18 March 13
  37. 37. July 14, 1933 The "Law against the establishment of political parties" declared the Nazi Party to be the countrys only legal party. However, for all practical purposes Germany had been a one-party state since the passage of the Enabling Act.Monday, 18 March 13
  38. 38. April 24, 1934 Peoples Courts - Hitler sets up the Nazi peoples courts where judges have to swear an oath of loyalty to the Nazis. The "Peoples Court" was set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law. The court had jurisdiction over a rather broad array of "political offenses".Monday, 18 March 13
  39. 39. David Low, 1934, “They salute with both hands now June 30, 1934 Night of the Long Knives - members of the Nazi paramilitary Storm Division (SA) demanded that the Nazi party carry out its radical socialist agenda, and that the SA take over the army. The SS murdered the leader of the SA Ernst Rohm and 85 SA members, along with a number of Hitlers other opponents including former Chancellor von Schleicher. This operation eliminates opposition to Hitler within Nazi ranks.Monday, 18 March 13
  40. 40. August 19, 1934 When Hindenburg died, Hitler assumed the office of President and leader of the army (the soldiers had to swear to die for Adolf Hitler personally).   Hitler called himself Fuhrer.Monday, 18 March 13
  41. 41. SOURCES http://mitchellarchives.com/hitler-becomes-chancellor-of- germany.htm http://www.slideshare.net/duanegalle/hitlers-rise-to- power-1480162 http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/named.htm http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dcKzjX0Xu0A/TyZs-RxRisI/ AAAAAAAAATY/NveHYH9CKlo/s1600/Adolf_Hitler_Appointed.jp http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/images/ nazi_propaganda_ein_volk.jpg http://www.freedomisknowledge.com/meltingpot/topic3.html http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/posters1.htmMonday, 18 March 13
  42. 42. http://www.berlin.de/2013/en/portraits/selected-portraits/wels-otto/ http://www.stormfront.org/forum/t431741-8/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/germany/ hitlerconsolidaterev1.shtml http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/boycott.htm https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.wlu.edu %2F~patchw%2FHis_214%2Fphotogallery%2F1932_Hitlers %2520Rise.pptx http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/subpage.cfm?subpage_id=130 http://www.johndclare.net/Nazi_Germany1.htm http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005686 http://www.docstoc.com/docs/121580405/The-Rise-of-Nazi- Germany-(PowerPoint)Monday, 18 March 13
  43. 43. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/ nazi_genocide_timeline/index_embed.shtml http://www.docstoc.com/docs/93855451/The-Rise-of-Hitler--- Download-as-PowerPoint http://sitemaker.umich.edu/rememberingnazism/nazi_propaganda http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gleichschaltung http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-927686-2.pdfMonday, 18 March 13

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