Principle of Personal Selling


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Principle of Personal Selling

  1. 1. Chapter 02 Principles of Personal Selling
  2. 2. Selling is only the tip of the iceberg “ There will always be need for some selling. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. All that should be needed is to make the product or service available.” Peter Drucker
  3. 3. Principles of Personal Selling <ul><li>Personal selling is an ancient art that has spawned many principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship marketing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sales Professionalism <ul><li>All sales-training approaches try to convert a salesperson from a passive order taker into an active order getter </li></ul><ul><li>Order takers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That customers know their own needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resent attempts to influence them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer courteous and self-effacing salespersons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two basic become a order getters : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales-oriented approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses high pressure techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer-oriented approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses customer problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No approach works best in all circumstances </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Steps in Effective Selling Prospecting and Qualifying Pre approach Approach Presentation and Demonstration Overcoming objections Closing Follow up and Maintenance
  6. 6. Prospecting and Qualifying <ul><li>The first step in selling is to identify and qualify prospects. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies can generate leads by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examining data sources (newspapers, directories, CD-ROMs, Web sites) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibiting at trade shows to encourage drop-bys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inviting customers to suggest the names of prospects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivating referral sources (suppliers, dealers, and bankers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacting organizations and association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in speaking and writing activities that will draw attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications (phone, mail, Internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping in unannounced (cold canvassing) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pre approach <ul><li>The sales person needs to learn : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospect company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in the purchase decision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buying styles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The sales person should set call objectives : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To qualify the prospect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an immediate sale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The best approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone call or letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best timing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finally, the salesperson should plan an overall sales strategy for the account </li></ul>
  8. 8. Approach <ul><li>The salesperson decides how to get the relationship off to a good start </li></ul><ul><li>The salesperson might consider : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing clothes similar to what the buyers typically wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show courtesy and attention to the buyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid distracting mannerisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When meeting with the prospect : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open with a positive statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate on understanding the buyer’s needs (questioning and active listening) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Presentation and Demonstration <ul><li>Tells the product “story” to the buyer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the AIDA formula : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arousing desire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To presentation use FABV : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features : physical characteristics of market offering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages : why the features provide an advantage to customer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits : the economic, technical, service, and social benefits delivered by the offering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value approach : the summative worth (monetary term) of the offering </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Presentation and Demonstration <ul><li>Spend too much on product features ( a product orientation) than the offering’s benefits and value ( a customer orientation) </li></ul><ul><li>3 different style of sales presentation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canned approach (oldest presentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulated approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need-satisfaction approach </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Presentation and Demonstration <ul><li>Canned approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorized sales talk covering the main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on stimulus-response thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The buyer is passive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be moved to purchase by the use of the right stimulus (picture, word, term, and actions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulated approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on stimulus-response thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the buyer’s needs and buying style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need-satisfaction approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the customer’s real needs (encouraging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use role of a knowledgeable business consultant </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Overcoming Objections <ul><li>Customers almost always pose objections during the presentation or when asked for the order </li></ul><ul><li>To handle these objections : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintains a positive approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asks the buyer to clarify the objection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asks questions that lead the buyer to answer his or her own objection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>denies the validity of the objection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>turns the objection into a reason for buying </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Closing <ul><li>Salespersons need to know how to recognize closing sign from the buyer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements or comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for the order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recapitulate the points of agreement, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer to help the buyer write up the order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask whether the buyer wants A or B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the buyer to make minor choices such as the color or size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate what the buyer will lose if the order is not placed now </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Follow-up and Maintenance <ul><li>After closing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salesperson should cement any necessary details : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other matters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salesperson should schedule a follow-up call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To detect any problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assure the buyer interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce any cognitive dissonance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales person should develop a maintenance and growth plan for the account </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Negotiation My father said: &quot;You must never try to make all the money that's in a deal. Let the other fellow make some money too, because if you have a reputation for always making all the money, you won't have many deals.” J. Paul Getty
  16. 16. Negotiation <ul><li>Much business-to-business selling involves negotiating skills </li></ul><ul><li>The two parties need to reach agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others term of sale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salesperson need to win without making deep concessions that will hurt profitability </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 exchange in marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routinized exchange : administered program of pricing and distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated exchange : price and others term area set via bargaining behavior </li></ul></ul>To continued in chapter 03 Negotiation………..
  17. 17. Relationship Marketing <ul><li>The principles of personal selling and negotiation thus far described are transaction oriented because their purpose is to close a specific sale </li></ul><ul><li>The company must build a long-term supplier customer relationship by demonstrating that it has the capabilities to serve the account’s needs in a superior way over the long run </li></ul><ul><li>The company must build relationship marketing rather than transaction marketing, because larger customers are often global and prefer suppliers that can : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sell and deliver a coordinated set of products and services to many locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quickly solve problems that arise in different locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work closely with customer teams to improve products and processes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Relationship Marketing <ul><li>To succeed in winning and maintaining accounts in today’s demanding environment, company must : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage sales teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward it with appropriate compensation for work on shared accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish better goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures for their sales force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the importance of teamwork in their training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The organization will begin to focus as much on managing its customers as on managing its products </li></ul>
  19. 19. Relationship Marketing <ul><li>Neil Rackham has developed a method to raise 4 types of question with the prospect </li></ul><ul><li>SPIN selling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need-Payoff </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Relationship Marketing <ul><li>Situation question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask about fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore the buyer’s present situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with problem, difficulties, and dissatisfactions the buyer’s is experiencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask about the consequences or effects of a buyer’s problem, difficulties, and dissatisfactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need-payoff question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask about the value or usefulness of a proposed solution </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Relationship Marketing <ul><li>Neil Rackham suggest if selling complex product or services, sales person should have move from preliminaries to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating problem and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating the supplier’s superior capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining a long-term comitment </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Notes <ul><li>For an excellent summary of the skills needed by sales representatives and sales managers, see Rolph Anderson and Bert Rosenbloom, “The World Class Sales Manager: Adapting to Global Megatrends,” Journal of Global Marketing 5, no. 4 (1992): 11–22. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the following discussion is based on W. J. E. Crissy, William H. Cunningham, and Isabella C. M. Cunningham, Selling: The Personal Force in Marketing (New York: John Wiley, 1977), pp. 119–29. </li></ul><ul><li>For additional reading, see Howard Raiffa, The Art and Science of Negotiation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982); Max H. Bazerman and Margaret A. Neale, Negotiating Rationally (New York: Free Press, 1992); James C. Freund, Smart Negotiating (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992); Frank L. Acuff, How to Negotiate Anything with Anyone Anywhere Around the World (New York: American Management Association, 1993); and Jehoshua Eliashberg, Gary L. Lilien, and Nam Kim, “Searching for Generalizations in Business Marketing Negotiations,” Marketing Science 14, no. 3, pt. 1 (1995): G47–G60. </li></ul><ul><li>See Donald W. Dobler, Purchasing and Materials Management, 5th ed. (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1990). </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, rev. ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), p. 57. </li></ul><ul><li>See Frank V. Cespedes, Stephen X. Doyle, and Robert J. Freedman, “Teamwork for Today’s Selling, Harvard Business Review, March–April 1989, pp. 44–54, 58. Also see Cespedes, Concurrent Marketing: Integrating Product, Sales, and Service (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Questions
  24. 24. To be continued in the next chapter……… THANK YOU Kurniawan