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Children Exercise Physiology
by
Moch.Yunus
1Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
(EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY)
2Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
The study of the human body during exercise
Offers ability to stud...
Exercise Physiology
Stimulus Response
Acut exercise Response
Chronic Exercise Adaptation
HOMEOSTASIS
3Moch.Yunus / Exercis...
Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology 4
• Homeostasis,, is the property of a
system in which variables are
regulated so that in...
Children and Adolescents
Exercise Physiology
?????
5Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
OBJECTIVES
Children are not just smaller
versions of adults.
1. GROWTH AND MATURATION
2. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
3. NUTR...
OBJECTIVES
6. ACUTE SPORTING INJURIES
7. OVERUSE INJURIES
8. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
9. ACUTE ILLNESS AND SPORTS PARTICI...
GROWTH AND MATURATION
1) VARIABILITY IN THE PHYSICAL GROWTH OF 6 YEARS
2) PEAK HEIGHT VELOCITY ( PHV )
3) 12 YEAR OLD: SIG...
PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
1. Aerobic Capacity in Children
• VO2max (L/min) peaks around age 17 to 21 in
males, then decrea...
Aerobic Capacity in Children
• When VO2max is expressed relative to body
weight, there is little difference in aerobic
cap...
Changes in VO2max With Age
Absolute (e.g. L/min)
Relative to body weight
(e.g. ml/kg/min)
11Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiolo...
PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
2) ANAEROBIC POWER:
- SIGNIFICANT LOWER IN CHILDREN
( SHORT TERM POWER OUTPUT )
- IMPROVING WITH...
Optimal Anaerobic Power Output
13Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacities as a
% of Adult Levels
Adult level
14Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
3) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
- CHILDREN: HIGHER MAXIMAL HEART RATE
- LOWER STROKE VOLUME
- LOWER SY...
HR and SV as a Function of O2
Uptake
16Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
4) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
- CHILDREN: SHALLOW BREATHING PATTERN
RESULTING IN LOWER ABSORPTION OF
OX...
PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
5) EXERCISE IN HOT AND COLD ENVIRONMENTS:
CHILDREN VUNERABLE: RATIO OF SURFACE AREA TO
VOLUME 30...
19
Beginning Training
Sensitive Periods.
• Max strength : 12-14(f) 14-16(m)
• explosive strength : 10-12(f) 12-14(m)
• Str...
20Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
1) ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT
2) IRREGULAR EATING HABITS (SNACKS,
MISSING LUNCH ETC )
3) CALCIUM, ...
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1) CHILDHOOD PLAY IMPORTANT FOR SPORT: ( FIRST 7
YEARS OF LIFE)
- BALANCE AND CO-ORDINATION
-...
THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL
SYSTEM
• 1) PRESENCE OF GROWTH CARTILAGE IN SKELETON
• A) ARTICULAR SURFACES
• B) EPIPHYSEAL ...
THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL
SYSTEM
• 3) FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INCIDENCE OF
SPORT INJURIES
• EPIDEMIOLOGY: 3 INJURIES PE...
THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL
SYSTEM
• INCOMPLETE RECOVERY FROM INJURY: 30%
• FOUL OR ILLEGAL PLAY: 13%
• OVERUSE INJURIES:...
ACUTE SPORTING INJURIES
• 1) HEAD AND NECK : VERY RARE BELOW 11 YRS
• 1-5% OF ALL SPORT INJURIES SERIOUS CNS DAMAGE
• 2) D...
OVERUSE INJURIES
• 1) OSTEOCHONDROSES
• 2) STRESS FRACTURES: SUDDEN INCREASE IN
TRAINING INTENSITY
• X-RAYS OR BONE SCANS
...
OVERUSE INJURIES
• 1) OSTEOCHONDROSES:
• “ SELF-LIMITED,IDIOPATHIC, DEVELOPEMENTAL
DISORDERS OF PRIMARY OR SECONDARY
OSSIF...
OVERUSE INJURIES
• 1) OSTEOCHONDROSES:
• - ARTICULAR SUBCHONDRAL ( CRUSHING )
• PERTHES DISEASE (FEMORAL HEAD)
• KIEBOCKS ...
CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
• 1) ASTHMA: EXERCISE INDUCED
BRONCHSPASM ( EIB)
• EXERCISE INDUCED ASTHMA ( EIA )
• 2) DIABETES...
CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
• 4) CYSTIC FIBROSIS ( GENERAL EXOCRCINE
GLAND DYSFUNCTION )
• CHRONIC RECURRENT SINUS AND
RESPI...
CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
• 5) HYPERTENSION:
• (?) CAUSES, PRIMARY OR SECONDARY
• SPORTS BENEFICIAL FOR PRIMARY
HYPERTENSI...
CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
• 6) HEART DISEASE: CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN
5/1000 SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN. RHEUMATIC
HEART DIS...
CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
• 6) HEART DISEASE
• - CARDIAC CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED COMMONLY
WITH SUDDEN DEATH IN SPORT ACTIVIT...
CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS
• - CARDIAC CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH
SUDDEN DEATH IN YOUNG ATHLETES:
• HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOP...
ACUTE ILLNESS AND SPORT
PARTICIPATION
• 1) INFECTIONS MONONUCLEOSIS
• ( GLANDULAR FEVER )
• - SELF-LIMITED ACUTE VIRAL ILL...
ACUTE ILLNESS AND SPORT
PARTICIPATION
• - ENLARGED SPLEEN 40-60%, RUPTURE 0.1 –
0.2%
• - 4 WEEKS ABSENCE, SYMPTOMS CAN LAS...
PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH
EVALUATION
• HISTORY TAKING, PHYSICAL EXAMINATION,
INVESTIGATIONS, ANTHROPOMETRIC
MEASUREMENT
• -...
PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH
EVALUATION
• 3) LOSS OF CONCIOUSNESS WITH EXERCISE
• 4) SERIOUS CNS TRAUMA OR SURGERY
• 5) HISTOR...
PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH
EVALUATION
• 8) SINGLE ORGAN
• 9) HAEMORRHAGIC DISSORDERS
• 10) CHRONIC INFECTIONS
• 11) CHRONIC ...
INJURY PREVENTION
• 1) FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SPORT INJURIES
• - LACK OF COACHING EDUCATION
• - INADEQUATE PREPARTICIPATI...
INJURY PREVENTION
• - PLAYING WHILE INJURED OR OVERTIRED
• - GROUPING TEAMS BY AGE NOT SIZE
• - POOR NUTRITION
• - RULES A...
INJURY PREVENTION
• PREVENTION STRATEGIES:
• - GENERAL FITNESS – TRAINING
• - RANGE OF SPORT ACTIVITIES
• - TRAINING WELL ...
INJURY PREVENTION
• - OPPONENTS TO BE MATCHED IN AGE,
HEIGHT, WEIGHT, MATURITY
• - STRICT SUPERVISION
• - NO MORE THAN A 1...
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Children Exercise Physiology

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Children Exercise Physiology

  1. 1. Children Exercise Physiology by Moch.Yunus 1Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  2. 2. (EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY) 2Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology The study of the human body during exercise Offers ability to study the body out of homeostasis
  3. 3. Exercise Physiology Stimulus Response Acut exercise Response Chronic Exercise Adaptation HOMEOSTASIS 3Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  4. 4. Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology 4 • Homeostasis,, is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of temperature and the balance between acidity and alkalinity (pH). It is a process that maintains the stability of the human body's internal environment in response to changes in external conditions
  5. 5. Children and Adolescents Exercise Physiology ????? 5Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES Children are not just smaller versions of adults. 1. GROWTH AND MATURATION 2. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES 3. NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 5.THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology 6
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES 6. ACUTE SPORTING INJURIES 7. OVERUSE INJURIES 8. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS 9. ACUTE ILLNESS AND SPORTS PARTICIPATION 10.PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH EVALUATION 11. INJURY PREVENTION 7Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  8. 8. GROWTH AND MATURATION 1) VARIABILITY IN THE PHYSICAL GROWTH OF 6 YEARS 2) PEAK HEIGHT VELOCITY ( PHV ) 3) 12 YEAR OLD: SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENT HEIGHT, MUSCULAR STRENGTH, CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS LEVELS 4) NO REASON TO SEGREGATE SEXES UP TO 14 YEARS OLD 8Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  9. 9. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES 1. Aerobic Capacity in Children • VO2max (L/min) peaks around age 17 to 21 in males, then decreases linearly with age. • VO2max (L/min) has been shown to peak around age 12 to 15 in females – Decrease after age 15 may be due to females tending to reduce physical activity • Absolute VO2max (L/min) is lower in children than adults at similar training levels. 9Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  10. 10. Aerobic Capacity in Children • When VO2max is expressed relative to body weight, there is little difference in aerobic capacity between adults and children, thus, additional muscle mass increases maximal oxygen consumption. • Relative to body weight, running economy is lower in children compared to adults. 10Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  11. 11. Changes in VO2max With Age Absolute (e.g. L/min) Relative to body weight (e.g. ml/kg/min) 11Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  12. 12. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES 2) ANAEROBIC POWER: - SIGNIFICANT LOWER IN CHILDREN ( SHORT TERM POWER OUTPUT ) - IMPROVING WITH GROWTH - IN GIRLS LITTLE CHANGE AFTER 12 YEARS OLD - CHILDREN: LESS USE OF GLYCOGEN, LESS ABLE TO REDUCE PH 12Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  13. 13. Optimal Anaerobic Power Output 13Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  14. 14. Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacities as a % of Adult Levels Adult level 14Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  15. 15. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES 3) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: - CHILDREN: HIGHER MAXIMAL HEART RATE - LOWER STROKE VOLUME - LOWER SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE - BETTER PERIFERAL BLOOD FLOW ADJUSTMENT TO SPORT 15Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  16. 16. HR and SV as a Function of O2 Uptake 16Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  17. 17. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES 4) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: - CHILDREN: SHALLOW BREATHING PATTERN RESULTING IN LOWER ABSORPTION OF OXYGEN FROM INSPIRATION - HIGHER RESPIRATORY FREQUENCY RESULTING IN GREATER OXYGEN COST IN RESPIRATION 17Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  18. 18. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES 5) EXERCISE IN HOT AND COLD ENVIRONMENTS: CHILDREN VUNERABLE: RATIO OF SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME 30-40% HIGHER THAN ADULTS RESULTING IN FASTER INCREASE OR LOOSING BODY HEAT SWEATING MECHANISM IS FULLY OPERATIVE AFTER ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT - DEHYDRATION 18Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  19. 19. 19 Beginning Training Sensitive Periods. • Max strength : 12-14(f) 14-16(m) • explosive strength : 10-12(f) 12-14(m) • Strength Endurance : 12-14(f) 14-16(m) • Aerobic Endurance : 8-10 (f & m) Anaerobic Endurance : 12-14(f) 14-16(m) • Speed of Reaction : 8-10 (f & m) • Maximal Speed : 10-12(f) 12-14(m) • Coordination : 5-8 (f & m) Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  20. 20. 20Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  21. 21. NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 1) ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT 2) IRREGULAR EATING HABITS (SNACKS, MISSING LUNCH ETC ) 3) CALCIUM, FOLIC ACID, ZINC, IRON,VITAMINS A,B6,C 4) DIETARY MANIPULATION, EATING DISORDERS 21Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  22. 22. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 1) CHILDHOOD PLAY IMPORTANT FOR SPORT: ( FIRST 7 YEARS OF LIFE) - BALANCE AND CO-ORDINATION - PROPREOCEPTION ( POSITION SENSE ) 2) REWARDS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SELF ESTEEM AND ADMIRATION 3) SPORTS VERSUS PLAY ( AFTER 6 YEARS OLD ) GROUP GAMES, RULES OF GAMES, GOAL GAMES PREPARATION AND FEELINGS OF GAME SPORTS 22Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  23. 23. THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM • 1) PRESENCE OF GROWTH CARTILAGE IN SKELETON • A) ARTICULAR SURFACES • B) EPIPHYSEAL PLATES, APOPHYSEAL INSERTIONS • 2) EFFECTS OF EXERCISE: • INTENSIVE PROGRAMMES LEAD TO BONY DEFORMATION • HEAVY PHYSICAL TRAINING LEADS TO LONGER PREPUBERTAL STATE IN GIRLS • SPECIAL INTENSIVE TRAINING LEADS TO STRENGTH IMBALANCE: SHOULDER 23Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  24. 24. THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM • 3) FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INCIDENCE OF SPORT INJURIES • EPIDEMIOLOGY: 3 INJURIES PER 100 CHILDREN PER YEAR • 0.69 SERIOUS INJURIES PER YEAR • PEAK FOR BOYS: 14 YEARS OLD • GIRLS: 15 YEARS OLD 24Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  25. 25. THE IMMATURE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM • INCOMPLETE RECOVERY FROM INJURY: 30% • FOUL OR ILLEGAL PLAY: 13% • OVERUSE INJURIES: 50% • - COMPETITION 35% OF INJURIES • - RUGBY LEAGUE 32%,SOCCER, RUGBY UNION 11%, MARTIAL ARTS, HORSE RIDING 2% SAFEST • SPRAIN ANKLE 45%. 30% MEDICAL ATTENTION, 11% HOSPITALIZED, 12% LONG TERM DYSFUNCTION 25Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  26. 26. ACUTE SPORTING INJURIES • 1) HEAD AND NECK : VERY RARE BELOW 11 YRS • 1-5% OF ALL SPORT INJURIES SERIOUS CNS DAMAGE • 2) DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES • 3) GROWTH PLATE INJURY: SALTER-HARRIS CLASSIFICATION • 4) AVULSION FRACTURE OF ACL • 5) AVULSION FRACTURE MUSCLE GROUPS • 6) SUFE: 30% SUDDENLY, 70% GRADUAL 26Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  27. 27. OVERUSE INJURIES • 1) OSTEOCHONDROSES • 2) STRESS FRACTURES: SUDDEN INCREASE IN TRAINING INTENSITY • X-RAYS OR BONE SCANS • NAVICULAR, PARS-INTERARTICULARIS, FEMORAL NECK • 3) MALALIGNMENT SYNDROMES: • TARSAL COALITIONS ( PERONEI TENDINITIS ) 27Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  28. 28. OVERUSE INJURIES • 1) OSTEOCHONDROSES: • “ SELF-LIMITED,IDIOPATHIC, DEVELOPEMENTAL DISORDERS OF PRIMARY OR SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTRES” • - TRACTION OSTEOCHONDRITIS (APOPHYSITIS ): OSGOOD-SCHLATTERS, SINDING-LARSEN- JOHANSSON, SEVERS 28Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  29. 29. OVERUSE INJURIES • 1) OSTEOCHONDROSES: • - ARTICULAR SUBCHONDRAL ( CRUSHING ) • PERTHES DISEASE (FEMORAL HEAD) • KIEBOCKS DISEASE ( LUNATE ) • KOHLERS DISEASE ( NAVICULAR ) • FREIBERGS DISEASE ( 2ND METAT.) • ARTICULAR CHONDRAL (SPLITTING) • OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS ( FEMUR,CAPITELUM,TALAR) • PHYSEAL: SCHEURMANNS (THORACIC SPINE ) • BLOUNTS ( TIBIA ) 29Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  30. 30. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS • 1) ASTHMA: EXERCISE INDUCED BRONCHSPASM ( EIB) • EXERCISE INDUCED ASTHMA ( EIA ) • 2) DIABETES: INCREASED FATIGUE, ABNORMAL THIRST, FREQ.URINARY,WEIGHT LOSS • 3) EPILEPSY ( PETIT MAL, TEMPORAL LOBE, GRAND MAL ) 30Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  31. 31. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS • 4) CYSTIC FIBROSIS ( GENERAL EXOCRCINE GLAND DYSFUNCTION ) • CHRONIC RECURRENT SINUS AND RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS • DIGESTIVE TRACT DISORDERS AND MALNUTRITION • SWIMMING OF PARTICULAR BENEFIT IN BRONCHOSPASM HYGIENE 31Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  32. 32. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS • 5) HYPERTENSION: • (?) CAUSES, PRIMARY OR SECONDARY • SPORTS BENEFICIAL FOR PRIMARY HYPERTENSION • AVOIDANCE IN PRIMARY ISOMETRIC ACTIVITIES: WEIGHT LIFTING, WRESTLING, ICE-SKATING 32Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  33. 33. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS • 6) HEART DISEASE: CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN 5/1000 SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN. RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE 1/1000, VALVULAR DAMAGE • CARDIOMYOPATHY, MYOPATHY, HEREDITARY SYNDROME 0.8/1000 • RHYTHM SIGNIFICANT DISORDER 0.7/1000 • CONGENITAL CORONARY ANOMALIES 2/100.000 CHILDREN 33Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  34. 34. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS • 6) HEART DISEASE • - CARDIAC CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED COMMONLY WITH SUDDEN DEATH IN SPORT ACTIVITIES • AORTIC STENOSIS, TETRALOGY OF FALLOT, HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY, PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, MYOCARDITIS 34Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  35. 35. CHRONIC CHILDHOOD ILLNESS • - CARDIAC CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUDDEN DEATH IN YOUNG ATHLETES: • HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY, ABERRANT LEFT CORONARY ARTERY, AORTIC DISSECTION ( MARFANS SYNDROME ) CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE 35Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  36. 36. ACUTE ILLNESS AND SPORT PARTICIPATION • 1) INFECTIONS MONONUCLEOSIS • ( GLANDULAR FEVER ) • - SELF-LIMITED ACUTE VIRAL ILLNESS • - 90% INFECTED BY 30 YEAR OLDS • - PEAK IS 15-25 YEARS OLD • - EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) • - DIAGNOSIS FROM POSITIVE HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY TEST (MONOSPOT) 36Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  37. 37. ACUTE ILLNESS AND SPORT PARTICIPATION • - ENLARGED SPLEEN 40-60%, RUPTURE 0.1 – 0.2% • - 4 WEEKS ABSENCE, SYMPTOMS CAN LAST UP TO 6 MONTHS • 2) OTHER ACUTE ILLNESSES: HAEM.STREPTOCOCCUS, MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA, SIMPLE HERPES, TINEA PEDIS 37Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  38. 38. PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH EVALUATION • HISTORY TAKING, PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, INVESTIGATIONS, ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT • - CONDITIONS REQUIRING FURTHER EVALUATION AND POSSIBLE DISQUALIFICATION FROM SPORT: • 1) UNRESOLVED ORGANIC HEART DISEASE • 2) SUSTAINED HYPERTENSION WITH EXERCISE 38Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  39. 39. PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH EVALUATION • 3) LOSS OF CONCIOUSNESS WITH EXERCISE • 4) SERIOUS CNS TRAUMA OR SURGERY • 5) HISTORY OF RECURRENT CNS SYMPTOMS ( SEIZURE ETC ) • 6) PERSISTENT HEAT INTOLERANCE • 7) INTRACTABLE ORTHOPAEDIC PROBLEMS 39Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  40. 40. PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH EVALUATION • 8) SINGLE ORGAN • 9) HAEMORRHAGIC DISSORDERS • 10) CHRONIC INFECTIONS • 11) CHRONIC DEBILITATING ILLNESS • 12) ENLARGED ABDOMINAL VISCERA • 13) OBVIOUS PHYSICAL IMMATURITY 40Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  41. 41. INJURY PREVENTION • 1) FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SPORT INJURIES • - LACK OF COACHING EDUCATION • - INADEQUATE PREPARTICIPATION PHYSICAL EXAMS • - HAZARDOUS PLAYING FIELDS • - CONDITIONING AND TRAINING ERRORS • - EQUIPMENT – LACK, IMPROPER, POORLY FITTED 41Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  42. 42. INJURY PREVENTION • - PLAYING WHILE INJURED OR OVERTIRED • - GROUPING TEAMS BY AGE NOT SIZE • - POOR NUTRITION • - RULES AND OFFICIALS • - IMPROPER TECHNIQUE • - INADEQUATE SUPERVISION • - PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS • - WEATHER CONDITIONS 42Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  43. 43. INJURY PREVENTION • PREVENTION STRATEGIES: • - GENERAL FITNESS – TRAINING • - RANGE OF SPORT ACTIVITIES • - TRAINING WELL BEFORE SEASON • - ALLOW CHILDREN TO CONTROL INTENSITY OF ACTIVITIES • - MODIFY RULES OF ADULT GAMES • - LESS EMPHASIS ON WINNING 43Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology
  44. 44. INJURY PREVENTION • - OPPONENTS TO BE MATCHED IN AGE, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, MATURITY • - STRICT SUPERVISION • - NO MORE THAN A 10% INCREASE PER WEEK IN TRAINING • - WARM-UP AND COOL-DOWN TIME • - PRE-PARTICIPATION EXAMS. 44Moch.Yunus / Exercise Physiology

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