Mortoza Mohammadi
Latin American Independence Movements

 Mexico, Central America, and South America gave birth to their
  independence fro...
Mid-Century Latin America
   The first quarter-century of independent life brought many changes to Latin America,
    but...
Britain on Latin American
 'Spanish America is free,' George Canning, the British
  Foreign Secretary, asserted in Decemb...
Latin American Wars of the 19th Century

 The Haitian War for Independence (1791-1803) began as
  a struggle between the ...
Mexico During this Period
 The people of Mexico reflect the country’s rich history. The
  Spanish conquest of the Aztec E...
Latin America
Latin America
Latin America
Latin America
Latin America
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Latin America

1,139 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Latin America

  1. 1. Mortoza Mohammadi
  2. 2. Latin American Independence Movements  Mexico, Central America, and South America gave birth to their independence from 1807-1824 from Spain and Portugal.  When the independence movement began at the beginning of the 19th century, Latin America contained two large productive colonial empires, the Spanish and the Portuguese. Spain’s colonies stretched from what is now the western United States and Mexico to Argentina, while Portugal’s empire was in Brazil. Under the system of colonialism, these territories were subject to extensive and complex networks of control by Spain and Portugal.  Both empires functioned well for three centuries, but by the mid- 1700s grievances developed among the colonists, who complained about economic restrictions and tax burdens imposed by the imperial powers. Those born in the colonies also resented the fact that European-born residents were favored for important bureaucratic and administrative positions.
  3. 3. Mid-Century Latin America  The first quarter-century of independent life brought many changes to Latin America, but not many that altered the fundamental structures of society and the economy. There was an increase in political turbulence, though with important variations among countries, and an increase in the extent of political participation as compared to the colonial era, yet for the great majority of Latin Americans national politics had little meaning. They usually did not take part either in the elections or in the "revolutions." They were still illiterate, still more susceptible to the influence of clergy and rural gentry than to that of partisan ideologues, and still subsisting at a very low level of material comfort, though seldom exposed to actual hunger.  There had been, of course, some Latin Americans who hoped independence would usher in more rapid transformations. Rivadavia and his circle at Buenos Aires are perhaps the most clear-cut example, but Santander at the head of the government of Gran Colombia, O'Higgins in Chile, the Andrada brothers in Brazil, and the men who founded the Mexican republic at the departure of Iturbide shared many of the same ambitions.  The decade of the 1820s did in fact see a flurry of reform activity almost everywhere. However, some of the "reforms" had only superficial effect, some were quickly repealed, and, with a few partial exceptions such as Venezuela and Guatemala, the next two decades saw an obvious waning of the impulse to change things. The 1830s and 1840s were typified instead by a preoccupation with the attainment of order and a generally moderate approach to questions of religious, social, or economic policy.
  4. 4. Britain on Latin American  'Spanish America is free,' George Canning, the British Foreign Secretary, asserted in December 1824, 'and if we do not mismanage our affairs sadly, she is English.'  Almost at the very moment that Canning wrote, the Latin American wars of independence were drawing to a close with the defeat of the Spanish forces in Peru at the decisive battle of Ayacucho. Britain's future in the region seemed assured.  The leaders of the new nations regarded diplomatic recognition by the United Kingdom as essential for both their economic development and their political security.  Canning's sense of triumph was motivated by the fact that he had finally persuaded his colleagues to consent to negotiations with Mexico, Gran Colombia and Buenos Aires for commercial treaties which might provide a more solid basis for Britain's trade with the new nations.
  5. 5. Latin American Wars of the 19th Century  The Haitian War for Independence (1791-1803) began as a struggle between the privileged white planters and the less privileged affranchis (those of mixed blood) and rapidly became an all-out race war when the third and largest racial element, the pure blacks, ultimately dominated.  In 1791 the affranchis sought the liberties given to all citizens by the French Revolution.  During the early years of the bloody warfare, some wealthy plantation owners were able to escape from Haiti with their slaves, contributing to the spread of race as a cause for conflict, particularly in neighboring Cuba.  Conflicts in other areas of Latin America have also had racial overtones, but none equaled the extremes of the Caribbean experience
  6. 6. Mexico During this Period  The people of Mexico reflect the country’s rich history. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in the early 16th century soon led to widespread intermarriage and racial mixing between Spaniards and Native Americans.  As late as the early 19th century, Native Americans accounted for nearly two-thirds of the population in the region.  During that century, however, the racial composition of the country began to change from one that featured distinct European (Spanish) and indigenous populations, to one made up largely of mestizos—people of mixed Spanish and Native American descent.  By the end of the 19th century, mestizos, who were discriminated against during three centuries of Spanish colonization, had become the largest population group in Mexico. Mestizos now account for about 60 percent of Mexicans.

×